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117 terms

PHYSIC FINAL EXAM

Terms from the Physics Exam Study Guide, Geeks of the Weeks, and units. Just tell me if any corrections need to be made!
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percent error
[(experimental value - actual value) ÷ actual value] × 100
inverse
one goes up, the other goes down
direct
one goes up, the other goes up; one goes down, the other goes down
relationship
how two things relate or connect to each other
circuit
a continuous path for electron motion that has a wire, EMF source, and resistor
charge
Definition:amount of electrons
Symbol: c
Unit: Coulombs (c)
static electricity
buildup of charge on a surface
conductor
a substance that allows electrons to move freely
insulator
a substance that does not allow electrons to move freely
EMF
the pull from protons to the electrons (electromotive force)
EPD
difference in charge (electric potential difference)
voltage
Definition: a push or pull of electrons
Symbol: V
Unit: Volts (V)
current
Definition: speed of electrons through the wire
Symbol: I
Unit: Amps (A)
resistance
Definition: an object that slows down electrons
Symbol: R
Unit: Ohms (Ω)
Ohm's law
Voltage = Current x Resistance (V = IR)
schematic
a diagram of a circuit
grounding wire
a wire that goes directly to the ground for safety reasons
series
a circuit with one pathway and one or more resistors
parallel
a circuit with one or more pathways and one or more resistors
ammeter
measures current and must always be connected in series
voltmeter
measures voltage and must always be connected in parallel
circuit breaker
a fuse with an ammeter, shuts off circuit when current gets to high
fuse
one time only use, metal snaps and breaks the circuit
switch
controls the flow of electrons(open - no electrons flow or closed - electrons flow)
acceleration
how much something speeds up each second
constant speed
acceleration = 0, Fnet = 0
speed
distance traveled in a certain time
distance
how far somethings travels
velocity
speed in a given direction
magnitude
the number in a vector
direction
the way that something travels
vector
a number with a direction
scalar
a number with units
SOHCAHTOA
math formula to determine a side when given a side and an angle
force
Definition: a push or pull
Symbol:F
Unit: Newtons (N)
inertia
an objects tendency to resist change in motion/direction
Newtonian pair
two things pulling on each other with the same force
mass
amount of matter in an object
weight
force due to gravity
gravity
force that pulls everything to the earth
force of motion
the largest pull in a direction
force applied
the force acted upon an object
force of friction
a force working in opposition to the force of motion
free body diagram
diagram showing the forces applied to an object
axes
sides of a graph
graph title
y axis vs x axis
power
amount of energy used over a given time
energy
anything that causes motion
work
energy spent
potential energy
energy stored within an object
kinetic energy
energy of motion
wavelength
the distance between two points of a wave
period
the time it takes to complete a full wave cycle
amplitude
the distance from the middle of the wave to the crest/trough
medium
the stuff surrounding something
pitch
frequency in sound waves
intensity
amount of energy
volume
amplitude in a sound wave
prism
a triangular object that bends light
Doppler effect
when the source of a sound is closer, the frequency gets higher (inverse relationship)
transverse
medium is moving perpendicular to the wave
frequency
number of crests that pass a point per time interval
longitudinal
medium is moving parallel to the wave
rarefaction
light hits and bounces back at a different wavelength
sonic boom
when an object is going faster than the speed of sound and creates a condensation/Mach cone
Mach number
speed of object ÷ 331 (speed of sound)
resonance
a solid object's ability to amplify a frequency
retina
surrounds vitreous, acts like a camera film
cone
process color and fine detail
rod
process light and side vision
cornea
clear covering helps focus light
optic nerve
sends signals from photoreceptors to the brain's visual center
vitreous
thick jelly in the center of the eye
macula
center of the retina, most photo receptor cells
iris
colored part of eye that reacts to amount of light, may contract or dilate.
pupil
central circular opening in the colored part of the eye
stirrup, hammer, anvil
three small bones, help amplify and transfer sound to the inner ear
auditory nerve
sends the electrical impulses to the brain
tympanic membrane
located in the middle ear at the end of the auditory canal, also called eardrum
cochlea
converts the vibrations into electrical impulses that are then sent to the auditory nerve
auditory hairs
vibrations cause these hair cells to move, which creates nerve signals that are then sent to the brain
outer ear
outside of the ear
ear canal
first destination of sound waves, closest to outer ear
Albert Einstein
Major Contribution: won Nobel Prize in 1921 for the photoelectric effect
Fun Fact: came up with the special theory of relativity
Alessandro (Giusseppe Antonio Anastasio) Volta
Major Contribution: credited with the development of the first modern battery (Voltaic pile)
Fun Fact: was made a Count by Emperor Napoleon
Georg Simon Ohm
Major Contribution: Ohm's law (V = IR)
Fun Fact: spent most of his life as a high school teacher
James Gaius Watt
Major Contribution: credited with partly starting the industrial revolution
Fun Fact:improved the steam engine
Charles Kao
Major Contribution: invented the fiber optic cable
Fun Fact: considered "father of broadband technology"
Heinrich Hertz
Major Contribution: first person to broadcast and receive a radio wave
Fun Fact: the measure of frequency (Hertz) was named in his honor
Ernst Mach
Major Contribution:determined that the speed of sound depends on the medium, temperature of medium can affect speed
Fun Fact: his other work included wave particle physics and inertia of stars
Christian Doppler
Major Contribution:discovered the Doppler effect
Fun Fact:was born into a family of stonemasons but was to weak for manual labor
Henry Cavendish
Major Contribution:determined the universal constant for gravity (9.8 m/s²)
Fun Fact:discovered hydrogen but it wasn't named
Isaac Newton
Major Contribution: universal gravitation and Newton's laws of motion
Fun Fact:first scientist to be buried at Westminster Abbey
Roentgen
Major Contribution:discovered x-rays
Carl Sagan
Major Contribution:brought the most complex scientific subjects to the mainstream through his writing
Fun Fact:first person to artificially produce ATP
Johannes Kepler
Major Contribution:first person to explain how planets orbit the sun
Fun Fact: determined Christ's birthday
Rube Goldberg
Major Contribution:drew cartoons that inspired the building of the first Rube Goldberg machines
Fun Fact: had a Civil Engineering degree for UCSF
acceleration due to gravity (Earth)
9.8 m/s²
speed of sound in air
331 m/s
slope of a graph
x axis ÷ y axis
meter (m)
distance (unit)
second (s)
time (unit)
joule (J)
energy (unit)
newton (N)
force (unit)
watt (w)
power (unit)
volt (v)
voltage (unit)
kilogram (kg)
mass (unit)
meters per second
velocity (unit)
meters per second per second (m/s²)
acceleration (unit)
coulomb (c)
charge (unit)
amp (a)
current (unit)
dollar ($)
cost (unit)
Ohm (Ω)
resistance (unit)
percent (%)
percent error (unit)
Hertz (Hz)
frequency (unit)
KiloWattHour (KWH)
energy (unit) (only to determine electrical energy)
decibel (dB)
amplitude (unit)