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51 terms

COMD 3100 exam 1 info

STUDY
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anatomy
the study of the structure of an organism
physiology
study of the function of the living organism (how it works)
sagittal
vertical field running through the body from front to back, dividing the body into right and left sides
frontal or coronal
vertical field passing through the body from side to side, dividing the body into anterior and posterior portions
transverse
divides the body into upper and lower halves
anterior
towards the front
posterior
toward the back
ventral
away from the backbone
dorsal
toward the backbone
central
pertaining to or situated at the center
peripheral
away from the center
superficial
toward the surface
deep
away from the surface
external
toward the outer surface
internal
toward the inner surface
medial
toward the axis or midline
lateral
away from axis or midline
proximal
toward the body
distal
away from the midline
superior
upper, above
inferior
lower, below
cell traits
grow, reproduce, spontaneous movement, metabolize, irritable- able to be affected or stimulated by a change in environment
cell
(biology) the basic structural and functional unit of all organisms
cytology
study of cells
protoplasm
a semi-fluid, appears as a clear substance or else it exhibits a granular appearance
protoplasm parts
1. Nucleus- chromatin ( containing DNA) and nucleolus ( containing ribosomes
2.Cytoplasm - fluid ( 70-85% water), and protein ( 20%)
epithelial tissue (1)
tissue arranged in mosaics. forming sheets of tissue that covers the external surface of the body, line the tubes or passages leading to the exterior and line the interior cavaties in the body
tissue types
epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous, tissue aggregates
epithelial tissue (2)
bound to underlying connective tissue by a basement membrane. 3 parts- epithelial tissue proper (skin, lines cavaties) endothelial tissue- (walls of heart, blood, lymph vessals) and mesothelial - (lines 4 membranes- peritoneal (abs) pleural cavaties (lungs) pericardial cavity (heart). Mesothelial- serous membrane.
connective tissue
specialized to support and protect as well as bind structures and aid in maintenance
5 types of connective tissue
areolar (loose), fibrous, cartilage, blood, bone
areolar tissue
connective tissue- fills space between organs, forms bed for skin and mucous membranes
2 types- adipose (fat cells) lymphiod- found in tonsils and adenoids
fibrous tissue
connective tissue- bind structures together and may have combinations of fiber types
white- strong dense found in ligaments that connect bones
yellow elastic- found when connective tissue must return to its place
collagenous and reticular fibers- flexible structure to fibrous connective tissue
cartilage tissue
connective tissue-
hyaline- covers articular surfaces of joints and forms the framework for lower respitory track
fibrocartilage- found in some joints, intervertebral joints
elastic- found in ear, outside ear, epiglottis, larynx
blood tissue
connective tissue- fluid tissue (10% body weight)
combined with lymphatic tissue
purposes- cassry oxygen and food, distribute heat evenly, defend body
bone
connective tissue- compact and spongy bone differ due to degree of porosity (long, short, flat, irregular)
206 bones in human body
muscle tissue
40% of body weight
-striated, smooth, cardiac
striated muscle
muscle tissue-
voluntary, transverse bands on the muscle cells, attach to skeleton, 329 of them, all but 2 paired (diaphragm and procerous) 1mm-120mm in length
smooth muscle
muscle tissue-
involuntary, organs (stomach, intestines, blood vessals) 15-200 microns in length. functions in wave format
cardiac muscle
muscle tissue- found in heart, involuntary, self excitable
muscle attachments
muscles have origin (fixed) and insertion (acted upon)
nervous tissue
specialized, irritable, modifies composition
tissue aggregates
6 types- fascia, ligaments, tendons, bones, joints, muscles
fascia
TISSUE AGGREGATES all dense fibrous connective tissues not otherwise designated as tendons, aponeroses, or ligaments. Found as membrane sheets
ligaments
TISSUE AGGREGATES elastic fibers; bone to bone, bone to cartilage, cart to cart. visceral ligaments bind organs and structures NO muscle
tendons
TISSUE AGGREGATES- tough, non-elastic. associated with muscle, mus-bone, mus-cart. broad sheets tendonous espansions serving as a convering for muscle
bone
TISSUE AGGREGATES- compact/spongy 206 bones in body*also connective
fibrous joints
TISSUE AGGREGATES immovable (i.e skull)
cartilaginous joint
TISSUE AGGREGATES certain amnt of movement
synovial joints
TISSUE AGGREGATES movable joints- gliding,hinge, pivot, ball and socket, saddle, condyloid
speech production
respiration, phonation, artic, and resonance