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the study of the structure of an organism


study of the function of the living organism (how it works)


vertical field running through the body from front to back, dividing the body into right and left sides

frontal or coronal

vertical field passing through the body from side to side, dividing the body into anterior and posterior portions


divides the body into upper and lower halves


towards the front


toward the back


away from the backbone


toward the backbone


pertaining to or situated at the center


away from the center


toward the surface


away from the surface


toward the outer surface


toward the inner surface


toward the axis or midline


away from axis or midline


toward the body


away from the midline


upper, above


lower, below

cell traits

grow, reproduce, spontaneous movement, metabolize, irritable- able to be affected or stimulated by a change in environment


(biology) the basic structural and functional unit of all organisms


study of cells


a semi-fluid, appears as a clear substance or else it exhibits a granular appearance

protoplasm parts

1. Nucleus- chromatin ( containing DNA) and nucleolus ( containing ribosomes
2.Cytoplasm - fluid ( 70-85% water), and protein ( 20%)

epithelial tissue (1)

tissue arranged in mosaics. forming sheets of tissue that covers the external surface of the body, line the tubes or passages leading to the exterior and line the interior cavaties in the body

tissue types

epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous, tissue aggregates

epithelial tissue (2)

bound to underlying connective tissue by a basement membrane. 3 parts- epithelial tissue proper (skin, lines cavaties) endothelial tissue- (walls of heart, blood, lymph vessals) and mesothelial - (lines 4 membranes- peritoneal (abs) pleural cavaties (lungs) pericardial cavity (heart). Mesothelial- serous membrane.

connective tissue

specialized to support and protect as well as bind structures and aid in maintenance

5 types of connective tissue

areolar (loose), fibrous, cartilage, blood, bone

areolar tissue

connective tissue- fills space between organs, forms bed for skin and mucous membranes
2 types- adipose (fat cells) lymphiod- found in tonsils and adenoids

fibrous tissue

connective tissue- bind structures together and may have combinations of fiber types
white- strong dense found in ligaments that connect bones
yellow elastic- found when connective tissue must return to its place
collagenous and reticular fibers- flexible structure to fibrous connective tissue

cartilage tissue

connective tissue-
hyaline- covers articular surfaces of joints and forms the framework for lower respitory track
fibrocartilage- found in some joints, intervertebral joints
elastic- found in ear, outside ear, epiglottis, larynx

blood tissue

connective tissue- fluid tissue (10% body weight)
combined with lymphatic tissue
purposes- cassry oxygen and food, distribute heat evenly, defend body


connective tissue- compact and spongy bone differ due to degree of porosity (long, short, flat, irregular)
206 bones in human body

muscle tissue

40% of body weight
-striated, smooth, cardiac

striated muscle

muscle tissue-
voluntary, transverse bands on the muscle cells, attach to skeleton, 329 of them, all but 2 paired (diaphragm and procerous) 1mm-120mm in length

smooth muscle

muscle tissue-
involuntary, organs (stomach, intestines, blood vessals) 15-200 microns in length. functions in wave format

cardiac muscle

muscle tissue- found in heart, involuntary, self excitable

muscle attachments

muscles have origin (fixed) and insertion (acted upon)

nervous tissue

specialized, irritable, modifies composition

tissue aggregates

6 types- fascia, ligaments, tendons, bones, joints, muscles


TISSUE AGGREGATES all dense fibrous connective tissues not otherwise designated as tendons, aponeroses, or ligaments. Found as membrane sheets


TISSUE AGGREGATES elastic fibers; bone to bone, bone to cartilage, cart to cart. visceral ligaments bind organs and structures NO muscle


TISSUE AGGREGATES- tough, non-elastic. associated with muscle, mus-bone, mus-cart. broad sheets tendonous espansions serving as a convering for muscle


TISSUE AGGREGATES- compact/spongy 206 bones in body*also connective

fibrous joints

TISSUE AGGREGATES immovable (i.e skull)

cartilaginous joint

TISSUE AGGREGATES certain amnt of movement

synovial joints

TISSUE AGGREGATES movable joints- gliding,hinge, pivot, ball and socket, saddle, condyloid

speech production

respiration, phonation, artic, and resonance

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