Psychology

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Terms in this set (...)

Sensory receptors
Specialized forms of neurons, the cells that make up the nervous system.
Just noticeable difference
Smallest difference between two stimuli that is detectable 50 percent of the time.
Absolute threshold
The lowest level of stimulation that a person can consciously detect 50 percent of the time the stimulation is present .
Sensory adaptation
Unchanging formation from the sensory receptors is effectively ignored.
Light
There are here aspects to our perception of light: brightness, color, saturation.
Explain the nature of light, and describe how light travels through the various parts of the eyes.
Light is actually tiny "packets" of waves. These wave packets are called photons and have specific wavelengths associated with them.
Brightness
Determined by the amplitude of the wave.
Color
Determined by the length of the wave.
Saturation
Purity of the color people perceive
Pupil
Iris opening that changes size depending on the amount of light in the environment.
Iris
It's muscles control the size of the pupil.
Aqueous humor
Clear liquid that nourishes the eye.
Cornea
Bends light waves so that the image can be focused on the retina.
Vitreous humor
Jelly like liquid that nourishes and gives shape of the eye.
Lends
Changes shape to bring objects into focus.
Retina
Contains photoreceptor cells
Fovea
Central area or retina; greatest density of photoreceptors
Optic nerve
Sends visual information to the brain
Blind spot (optic disc)
Where the optic nerve leaves the eye; there are no photoreceptor cells here
Visual accommodation
The lends changes its shape from thick to thin, enabling it to focus on objects that are close or far away.
Rods and cones
Respond to the various wavelengths of light and are responsible for different aspects of vision.
Blind spot
There are no rods or cones here, so this is referred to as blind spot.
How the eye works
Light entering the eye can be separated into the left and right visual fields. Light from the right visual field falls on the left side of each eye retina; light from the left visual field falls on the right side of each retina. Light travels in a straight line through the Cornea and lens, resulting in the image projected on the retina actually being upside down and reversed from left to right as compared to the visual field.
Dark adaption
The eye recovers its ability to see when going from brightly lit state to a dark state.
Light adaption
He cones have to adapt to the increase level of light,which is much more quickly than the rods adapt to darkness.
Trichromatic theory
Proposed three types of cones: red cones blue cones and green cones, one for each of the three primary color of light.diffrent shades of color correspond to different amounts of light received by each of these three types of cones
After image
When visual sensation persist for a brief time even after the original stimulus is removed.
Opponent process theory
The Four primary colors red green blue and yellow. The colors are arranged in pairs, with each member of the pair as opponents.
Color blindness
Defective cones in the retina of the eye and as a more general terms.
Explain the nature of sound, and describe how it travels through the variation parts of the ear.
The Sound waves are simply the vibrations of the molecule of air that surrounds us. Sound waves do have the same properties of light waves though- wavelength amplitude, and purity. Wavelengths are interpreted by the brain as the frequency or pitch. Amplitude is interpreted as volume, how soft or loud a sound is. Finally what would correspond to saturation or purity in light is called timbre in sound, a richness in the tone of the sound.
The outer ear (pinna)
The visible, external part of the ear that serves as a kind of concentrator, funneling the sound waves from the outside into the structure of the ear. Also the entrance to the auditory canal- short tunnel that runs down to the tympanic membrane or eardrum.
The middle ear: hammer, anvil, and stirrup
Hammer(malleus) anvil(incus) and stirrup (stapes) vibration of these three bones amplifies the vibrations from the eardrum.
The inner ear
This membrane is called the oval window, and it's vibrations set off another chain reaction within the inner ear. The inner ear is a snail shaped structure called the cochlea, which is filled with fluid. When the oval window vibrates, it causes the fluid in the cochlea to vibrate
Auditory nerve
(Contains the axons of all the receptor neurons) and into the brain,where after passing through the thalamus, the auditory cortex will interpret the sound(the transformation of the vibrations of sound into neural message is transduction.
Pitch
Refers to how high or low a sound is.
Place theory
The pitch a person hears depends on where the hair cells that are stimulated are located on the organ of corti
Frequency theory
States that pitch is related to how fast the basilar membrane vibrates. The faster this membrane vibrates, the higher the pitch; the slower it vibrates, the lower the pitch.
Taste buds
Common name for the taste receptor cells, special kinds of neurons found in the month that are responsible for the sense of taste or gestation
Five basic tastes
The Sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and brothy(umami) tastes associated with foods like chicken soup, tuna, kelp, cheese, and soy products, among others.the five taste sensations work together along with the sense of smell and the texture, temperature, and heat of foods, to produce thousands of tastes sensations, which are further affected by our culture, personal expectations, and past learning experiences.
Olfaction
The ability to smell odors. Turns odor into signals the brain can understand-is located at the top of the nasal passage.
The outer part of the nose
Merely ways to collect the sensory information and get it to the part of the body that will translate it into neural signals
Olfactory receptor cells
Have a dozen to a dozen little hair called cilia that project into the cavity. Like taste buds there are receptor sites on these hair cells that send signals to the brain when stimulated by the molecules of substance that are in the air moving past them.
The olfactory bulbs
Located right on top of the sinus cavity on each side of the brain directly beneath the frontal lobes. Receptors then send their neural signal directly up to these bulbs, bypassing the thalamus, the relays center for all other sensory information, then sent from the olfactory bulbs to higher cortical areas, including the primary olfactory cortex.
Somesthetic senses
What is thought of as the senses of touch is really several sensations, originating in several different places in -and on- the body.
Skin senses
Information about light touch, deeper pressure, hot, cold and even pain is collected by special receptors in the skins layers.
Types of sensory receptors in the skin
There are free nerve ending just beneath the uppermost layer of the skin that respond to changes in temperature and to pressure-and to pain. Pain nerve fibers in the internal organs as well as receptors for pressure. How else would people have a stomach or intestinal pain.
Visceral pain
There are receptors that detect pain(and pressure) in the organs.
Somatic pain
Pain sensations in the skin, muscles,tendons,and joints are carried on large nerve fibers.
Pain disorder
People who are born without having the ability to feel pain, rare conditions called congenital analgesia and congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis.
Phantom limb pain
When a person who has had an arm or leg removed somethings 'feels' pain in the missing limb.believe to be a psychological problem, some now believe that is caused by the traumatic injury to the nerves during amputation.
Pain: gate control theory
The pain signals must pass through a gate located in the spinal cord. The activity of the gate can be closed by non pain signals coming into the spinal cord. The activity of the gate can be closed by non pain signals coming into the spinal cord from the body and by signals coming from the brain. The gate is not a physical structure but instead represent the relative balance in neural activity of cells in the spinal cord the receive information from the body and then sends information to the brain.
Endorphins
Inhibit the transmission of pain signals in the brain, and in the spinal cord they can inhibit the release of substance.
Kinesthetic sense
Having to do with the location of the body parts in relation to each other.special receptors located in the muscles, tendons, and joints are part of the body's sense of movement and position in space- the movement and location of the arms, legs, and so forth in relation to one another.
Vestibular sense
Having to so with the movement and body position.the structures for this sense are located in the innermost chamber of the ear. There are two kinds of vestibular organs, the otoliths organs and the semicircular canals.
Otolith organs
Are tiny sacs found just above the cochlea. These sacs contain a gelatin-like fluid within which tiny crystals are suspended. The head moves and the crystals cause the fluid to vibrate, setting off some tiny hairlike receptors on the inner surface of the sac, telling the person that he or she is moving forward, backwards.sideways or up and down.
Semicircular canals
Three somewhat circular tubes that are also filled with fluid that will stimulate hairlike receptors when rotated. Have three tubes allow one to be located in each of the three planes of motion. Those are the three planes through which the body can rotate, and when it does, it sets off the receptors in the canals.
Sensory conflict theory
The explanation for the motion sickness. The information from the eyes may conflict a little too much with the vestibular organs, and dizziness nausea and disorientation.
Perception
Method by which the brain takes all the sensations people experience at any given moment and allows them to be interpreted in some meaningful fashion.
Size constancy
The tendency to interpret an object as always being the same size, regardless of its distance from the viewer.
Shape constancy
Another perceptual constancy is the tendency to interpret the shape of an object as constant, even when it changes in the retina.
Brightness constancy
The tendency to perceive the appearing brightness of an object as the same even when the light conditions change.
Figure ground
Relationships refer to the tendency to perceive objects or figures as exciting on a background.
Reversible figures
The figure and the ground seem to switch back and forth.
Proximity
To perceive objects that are closer to one another as part of the same group (nearness)
Similarity
The tendency to perceive things that look similar as being part of the same group.
Closure
Tendency to complete figures that are incomplete.
Continuity
Tendency to perceive things simply as possible with a continuous pattern rather than with a complex, broken up pattern.
Contiguity
The tendency to perceive two things that happen close together in time as being related.
Depth perception
The capability to see the world in three dimensions
Monocular cues
Some require the use of one eye
Binocular cues
Some are a result of the slightly different visual pattern that exist when visual fields of both eyes are used.
Monocular cues
Often referred as pictorial cues because artist can use these cues to give the illusion of depth to paintings and drawings.
Linear perspective
Tendency for lines that are actually parellel to seem to coverage on each other.
Relative size
When objects that people expect to be of certain size appear to be small and are, therefore, assumed to be further away.
Overlap
If one object seems to be blocking another object, people assume that the blocked object is behind the first one and, therefore , further away.
Aerial (atmospheric) perspective
The further the object is the hazier the object will appear to be due to tiny particles of dust dirt and other pollutants in the air.
Texture gradient
Trick used by artists to give the illusions of depth in a painting.
Motion parallax
The discrepancy in motion of near and far objects.
Accommodation
The molecule cue that is not one of the pictorial cues, determine the distance distance.
Convergence
Refers to the rotation of the two eyes in their sockets to focus on a single object.
Binocular disparity
Because the eyes are a few inches apart, they don't see exactly the same image.the brain interprets the image on the retina to determine distance from the eyes.
Illusion
Perception that does not correspond to reality
Perceptual set or expectancy
Peoples tendency to perceive things a certain way because their previous experiences or expectations influence them.
Top-down process
Use of pre exciting knowledge to organized individual features into unified whole.
Bottom-up processing
The analysis of smaller features and building up to a complete perception.
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