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US History 202 Exam 1
Terms in this set (42)
-president after Lincoln's assassination
-from TN, a pro-Union Southerner; very prejudiced; opposed voting rights to blacks
Southern Radical Republicans who opposed secession & took advantage of chaos during reconstruction
Northerners who rushed South with all their belongings in carpet bags to take advantage of chaos in the South
The Freedman's Bureau
Oliver Howard declares freed slaves "must be free to choose their own employers and be paid for their labor".
-agents sent to South to negotiate labor contracts, provide medical care, distribute food, and set up schools
-undone & reduced to an employment agency when Pres. Johnson gave the pardoned rebels their million acres of land back that was supposed to be used for the '40 acres & a mule'
-created to restrict freedom of blacks and to preserve slavery as closely as possible
-codes varied from state to state
-this was part of the Southern response to Northern presence.
The Compromise of 1877
Feb 26, 1877 - Repubs & Democrats stuck a bargain at a hotel in D.C.
-Repubs promised that if Hayes were elected he would withdraw the last federal troops from Louisiana & SC, allowing Republican governments there to collapse; thus returning power to Democratic rule
-In return, the Democrats promise to withdraw their opposition to Hayes, accept in good faith the Reconstruction amendments (including civil rights for blacks), and refrain from partisan reprisals against Repubs in the South
The Thirteenth Amendment
outlaws slavery - required by Johnson to be reunited to the Union
The Fourteenth Amendment
citizenship & equal protection under the law
-forbids any state to deprive any person of "life, liberty, or property without due process of the laws" or to "deny any person the equal protection of the law"
-established a constitutional guarantee of basic citizenship
-overturns supreme court decision in Dred v Scott case
-prohibited Pres from granting pardons to former rebel leaders
The Military Reconstruction Act
-declared that "no legal state governements or adequate protection for life and property now exists in the rebel States".
-led by the Radical Republicans
-divided states into 5 military districts
-each former rebel state had to ratify the 14th amend
-each state had to guarantee rights to vote to any black male
The Ku Klux Klan
populated by ex-confederates; it was first a brotherhood fraternity and then an attempt to restore white supremacy order & law; the members resisted reconstruction; started to terrorize by using violence and intimidation for blacks to stay "quiet" and not vote
John D. Rockefeller
born into poverty in NY; made the Standard Oil Company of Ohio; used waste reduction and controlled his product from raw material to finish goods for the consumer; success thru vertical integration and holding companies
born into poverty in Scotland and moved to US; worked in textile mill as a boy and worked way up thru a telegrapher and eventually a superintendent and president of the PA Railroad Company; eventually used the Bessemer converter to make steel directly and quickly from pig iron. he was never a technical expert on steel but a promoter, salesman, organizer and gifted hirer.
The Knights of Labor
1869 - wants 1 big union; for EVERY worker, skilled/unskilled, man/woman, black/white, the big goal was social reform for american society - people thought they were socialists
WEB Du Bois
leading critic of Booker T Washington - wanted to end segregation completely -
Booker T. Washington
"go along to get along" - economic independence is key -
reckless and glory-seeking Lieutenant in the US Army who fought the Sioux Indians in the Great Sioux War - in 1876, he and his soldiers were completely wiped out at the Battle of Little Big Horn
Jim Crow Laws
"separate but equal" - Southern Partnership; continued discrimination and disfranchisement
Plessy v Ferguson
US Supreme Court upholds separate but equal and makes it law and states it is constitutional
Eugene v. Debs
-was an American union leader, one of the founding members of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW or the Wobblies), and five times the candidate of the Socialist Party of America for President of the United States. Through his presidential candidacies, as well as his work with labor movements, Debs eventually became one of the best-known socialists living in the United States.
was a Hunkpapa Lakota holy man who led his people during years of resistance to United States government policies. He was killed by Indian agency police on the Standing Rock Indian Reservation during an attempt to arrest him, at a time when authorities feared that he would join the Ghost Dance movement.
was a pioneer American settlement activist/reformer, social worker, public philosopher, sociologist, author, and leader in women's suffrage and world peace. She created the first Hull House.
William Jennings Bryan
was an American orator and politician from Nebraska, and a dominant force in the populist wing of the Democratic Party, standing three times as the Party's candidate for President of the United States
William Howard Taft
was an American jurist and statesman who served as both the 27th President of the United States (1909-13) and later the tenth Chief Justice of the United States
was an American Republican (and later a Progressive) politician. He served as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives, was the Governor of Wisconsin, and was a U.S. Senator from Wisconsin from 1906 to 1925. He ran for President of the United States as the nominee of his own Progressive Party in 1924, carrying Wisconsin and winning 17% of the national popular vote.
Name given to US journalists and other writers who exposed corruption in politics and business in the early 20th century. The term was first used by Theodore Roosevelt in 1906.
to the United States Constitution prohibits the federal and state governments from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's "race, color, or previous condition of servitude." It was ratified on February 3, 1870, as the third and last of the Reconstruction Amendments.
to the United States Constitution allows the Congress to levy an income tax without apportioning it among the states or basing it on the United States Census.
to the United States Constitution established the popular election of United States Senators by the people of the states.
of the United States Constitution effectively established the prohibition of alcoholic beverages in the United States by declaring the production, transport, and sale of alcohol
to the United States Constitution prohibits any United States citizen from being denied the right to vote on the basis of sex.
Sherman Antitrust Act
is a landmark federal statute in the history of United States antitrust law (or "competition law") passed by Congress in 1890. Passed under the presidency of Benjamin Harrison, it prohibits certain business activities that federal government regulators deem to be anti-competitive, and requires the federal government to investigate and pursue trusts.
Interstate Commerce Act
of 1887 is a United States federal law that was designed to regulate the railroad industry, particularly its monopolistic practices. The Act required that railroad rates be "reasonable and just," but did not empower the government to fix specific rates.
is a variety of social and economic systems characterized by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production; as well as the political ideologies, theories, and movements that aim at their establishment.
is an African-American civil rights organization in the United States, formed in 1909 by Moorfield Storey, Mary White Ovington and W. E. B. Du Bois.[3
was an American business magnate and philanthropist who built his wealth in railroads and shipping.
was an American statesman, author, explorer, soldier, naturalist, and reformer who served as the 26th President of the United States from 1901 to 1909. As a leader of the Republican Party during this time, he became a driving force for the Progressive Era in the United States in the early 20th century.
is a federal law established in 1883 that decided that government jobs should be awarded on the basis of merit instead of political affiliation.
W.E.B Du Bois
was an American sociologist, historian, civil rights activist, Pan-Africanist, author, and editor.
was the 25th President of the United States, serving from March 4, 1897, until his assassination in September 1901, six months into his second term. McKinley led the nation to victory in the Spanish-American War, raised protective tariffs to promote American industry, and maintained the nation on the gold standard in a rejection of inflationary proposals.
is a doctrine that appeals to the interests and conceptions (such as hopes and fears) of the general population, especially when contrasting any new collective consciousness push against the prevailing status quo interests of any predominant political sector.
was devised by Mississippi Democrats to overthrow Republican rule through intimidation, violence, and paramilitary groups. Disturbances occurred throughout the state as Democrats won state elections in the "Counterrevolution of 1875." Previous: 1874. Next: 1876.
is a derogatory term of social criticism originally applied to certain wealthy and powerful 19th-century American businessmen. The term appeared as early as the August 1870 issue of The Atlantic Monthly magazine.
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