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AP Human Geography Review
Review terms from 7 topics: -Intro to Human Geo -Population Geo -Cultural Geo -Political Geo -Agricultural Geo -Economic Geo -Urban Geo
Terms in this set (186)
the ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture
the number of people living in a given unit area
the immigration to the United States and other industrialized states of skilled workers, professionals, and technicians who are desperately needed in their home countries
Crude birth rate (CBR)
the number of live births per year per 1000 people
Crude death rate (CDR)
the number of deaths per year per 1000 people
the study of human populations, including their temporal and spatial dynamics
the ration of the number of people who are either too old or young to provide for themselves to the number of people who must support them through their own labor; this is usually expressed in the form n: 100, where n equals the number of dependents
the diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin
time period required for a population experiencing exponential growth to double in size completely
the proportion of earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement
the process of moving out of a particular country, usually the individual person's country of origin
a model that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service; Tij = AYiYj /Dij, where Tij is exports from country i to country j, Yi,Yj are their national incomes, Dij is the distance between them, and A is a constant
workers who migrate to the more developed countries of Northern and Western Europe, usually from Southern and Eastern Europe or from North Africa, in search of higher-paying jobs
the process of individuals moving into a new country with the intentions of remaining there
Impact of immigration to the US (socio-economic consequences)
Ethnic/Religious Crimes/Disputes; provide an overall gain to the domestic economy due to an increase in pay for higher-skilled workers, lower prices for goods and services produced by immigrant labor, and more efficiency and lower wages for some owners of capital; although immigrant workers compete with domestic workers for low-skilled jobs, some immigrants specialize in activities that otherwise would not exist in an area, and thus can be beneficial for all domestic residents
Infant mortality rate (IMR)
the percentage of children who die before their first birthday within a particular area or country
the permanent or semi-permanent movement of individuals within a particular country
permanent movement from one country to another
the average age individuals are expected to live, which varies across space, between genders, and even between races
pessimistic argument that population increase will always outpace increases in food production, causing cycles of war, famine, and disease, articulated by Thomas Malthus (1766-1834)
medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa; improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives.
the long-term move of a person form one political jurisdiction to another
ability to move whether it be Circulation (Temporary) or Migration (Permanent)
Natural increase rate (NIR)
AKA Rate of Natural Increase; birth rate minus the death rate, suggesting the annual rate of population growth without considering net migration
the difference between in-migration and out-migration of an area
a value judgment based on the notion that the resources of a particular area are not great enough to support that area's current population
the number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture- this is important because it relates to how much land is being used by how many people
a measurement of the number of persons per unit land area
increase in the number of people who inhabit a territory or state
a model used in population geography to show the age and sex distribution of a particular population
attractions that draw migrants to a certain place, such as a pleasant climate and employment or educational opportunities
incentives for potential migrants to leave a place, such as a harsh climate, economic recession, or political turmoil
Reasons for declining birth rates
Changing roles of women from child bearer to independency/ increased women's rights. Women in industrial countries are not pressured as much to marry and have children. Women have less time for children because; Women have gained an increasing number of opportunities to work in highly paid jobs, which were previously reserved for men.; However, women, on average, are still paid less than men; Increased economic growth and prosperity gives people a higher priority to the economic costs of having children. Increased prosperity means people have higher expectations about living standards. The cost of raising children is higher than ever before.
people who leave their home because they are forced out, but not because they are being officially relocated or enslaved
the number of males per 100 females in the population
The Demographic Transition Model
a sequence of demographic changes in which a country moves from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates through time; seeks to explain the transformation of countries from having high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates//NO country today in Stage 1; Stage 2: Undeveloped poorer countries; Stage 3: Developing Countries (India, China); Stage 4: Developed countries w/ZPG (E.U.); Stage 5: Population "Implosion" (Japan)
Total fertility rate (TFR)
the average number of children born to a woman during her childbearing years
migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there
the tendency for migration to flow between areas that are socially and economically allied by past migration patterns, by economic and trade connections, or by some other affinity
a migration in which an eventual long distance relocation is undertaken in stages as, for example, from farm to village to small town to city
Zero population growth (ZPG)
proposal to end population growth through a variety of official and nongovernmental family planning programs
a process in which members of one cultural group adopt the beliefs and behaviours of another
a belief that natural objects may be the abode of dead people, spirits, or gods who occasionally give the objects the appearance of life
a two-part behavioural and structural process by which a minority population reduces or loses completely its identifying cultural characteristics and blends into the host society
a language developed from a pidgin to become the native tongue of a society
A traditional and widely accepted way of behaving or doing something that is specific to a particular society, place, or time.
a language variant marked by vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation differences from other variants of the same common language; When those variations are spatial or regional they are called geographic dialects; when they are indicative of socioeconomic or educational levels, they are called social dialects
Diffusion Of The World's Major Religions
Driven by war, colonization, imperialism, and trade
Elements Of Culture
Social Organization; Customs and Traditions; Language; Arts and Literature; Religion; Forms of Government; Economic Systems
a religion with a relatively concentrated spatial distribution whose principles are likely to be based on the physical characteristics of the particular location in which its adherents are concentrated. Ex: Judaism, Hinduism, Japanese Shinto
Ethnic quality; affiliation with a group whose racial, cultural, religious, or linguistic characteristics or national origins distinguish it from a larger population within which it is found
a subset of human population whose members share certain distinctive, inherited biological characteristics
The body of institutions, customs, dress, artefacts, collective wisdoms, and traditions of a homogeneous, isolated, largely self-sufficient, and relatively static social group
Globalization's Effect on Culture
Globalization is a social and cultural process in which individuals of different cultural backgrounds interact with each other in all spheres of life more intensively than before. This integration is increasingly exposing people to different ways of thinking, cultural values and new forms of family life. Women are getting out of the family home (gender roles); children are educated to partake in a world other than that of their parents (increased opportunities). Homogenizes people- loss of cultural identity
a mapped boundary marking the limits of a particular linguistic feature
any of various auxiliary languages used as common tongues among people of an area where several languages are spoken; literally, "Frankish language"
the belief that there is but a single God
an auxiliary language derived, with reduced vocabulary and simplified structure, from other languages; not a native tongue, it is used for limited communication among people with different languages
Belief in or worship of many gods
constantly changing mix of material and nonmaterial elements available through mass production and the mass media to an urbanized, heterogeneous, non-traditional society
a place name
a form of diffusion in which spread of an innovation can proceed either upward or downward through a hierarchy
the transfer of ideas, behaviours, or articles from one place to another through the migration of those possessing the feature transported; also, spatial relation in which a phenomenon leaves an of origin as it is transported to a new location
a belief system that espouses the idea that there is one true religion that is universal in scope. adherents of universalizing religious systems often believe that their religion represents universal truths, and in some cases great effort is undertaken in evangelism and missionary work. Ex-Christianity, Islam, Buddhism
the contentious political process by which a state may break up into smaller countries.
forces that tend to divide a country
forces that tend to unit or bind a country
an independent or autonomous entity whose territory consists of a city which is not administered as part as another local government; a central city and its surrounding villages, which together follow the same law, have one form of government, and share languages, religious beliefs, and ways of life
movement of power from the central government to regional governments within the state
Any small and relatively homogenous group or region surrounded by another larger and different group or region
the mass expulsion or killing of members of an ethnic or religious group in a society
a conceptual collective of dispersed ethnics; a form of nationalism wherein the nation is defined in terms of ethnicity
a bounded territory that is part of a particular state but is separated from it by the territory of a different state.
a government where the state is organized into territories, which have control over policies and funds; example: United States, Mexico, India, Russia, Germany, Nigeria
tightly knit group of individuals sharing a common language, ethnicity,, religion, and other cultural attributes
a country whose population possesses a substantial degree of cultural homogeneity and unity
a state that possesses a roughly circular, oval, or rectangular territory in which the distance from the geometric center is relatively equal in all directions; i.e. Poland
a state whose territory is long and narrow in shape; i.e. Chile
a state that is not a contiguous whole but rather separated parts; i.e. Philippines
a state that is completely surrounded by the land of other states, which gives it a disadvantage in terms of accessibility to and from international trade routes; i.e. Bolivia, Nepal
a state whose territory completely surrounds that of another state; i.e. Italy
a state that exhibits a narrow, elongated land extension leading away from the main territory; i.e.Thailand
supreme or independent political power
a politically organized territory that is administered by a sovereign government and is recognized by the international community
A nation of people not recognized by other states; i.e. Kurdistan, Palestinians, Kashmir
Organization of three or more states to promote shared objectives; i.e. EU, AU, ASEAN, OAS, INTERPOL, IMF, WTO
political boundaries that correspond with prominent physical features such as mountain ranges or rivers
(AKA anthropographic) boundaries created because of differences of ethnicity, language, and religion; language, for example, is an important cultural characteristic for drawing boundaries in Europe
a state governed constitutionally as a unit, without internal divisions or a federalist delegation of powers.
Positional Boundary Dispute
disagreement over older antecedent boundary (Peru-Ecuador)
Territorial Boundary Dispute
Disagreement over the possession/control of land (i.e. Kasmir, Somalia; Israel; Kurds; Basques; Spratly Islands); Problems surrounding ethnic and religious boundaries
territorial expansion (i.e. Nazi Germany)
Resource Boundary Dispute
Over water, oil, sea (i.e. Rio Grande between the U.S. and Mexico; Iraq-Kuwait)
Functional Boundary Dispute
Problem over use of land today (i.e.: illegal immigration)
the designation of voting districts so as to favor a particular political party or candidate; The Excess Vote Technique (Concentrate one group in a district); The Wasted Vote Technique (Break up concentrations of voters); The Stacked Vote Technique (Groups power bases together)
Major Ethnic conflicts of the world
Armenia (Christian-Muslim); The former Yugoslavia (Serbian Christians-Bosnian Muslims); Sudan (Darfur); Nigeria (Muslim north-mixed religion south); Ireland (Protestant pro-British vs. Catholic Irish); Kashmir (India vs. Pakistan)
a state or territory that is small in both population and area
United Nations Law of the Seas (UNCLOS)
Territorial Waters (12nm from coastline); Contiguous Zone (24 nautical miles); Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) (200nm from coastline- Includes fish and mineral resources); High Seas (Free Sea)
term for the various businesses involved in food production, including farming and contract farming, seed supply, agrichemicals, farm machinery, wholesale and distribution, processing, marketing, and retail sales. Commercial farms often owned by multinational corporations.
the science or business of the raising of plants or animals, such as fish or shellfish, in or at the bottom of the sea, a lake, a river, or other body of water
believed human growth stimulates agricultural intensification; basis of Cornucopians, and thought that new skills adjusted production; the larger the world population grows, the more innovations are made to make feeding the expanding population possible
large scale farming and ranching operations that employ vast land bases, large mechanized equipment, factory-type labor forces, and the latest technology
located around large urban areas-production of milk, cheese, and other dairy products (in von Thunen model required to be close to market to prevent spoiling; expensive transportation and storage makes it most profitable near larger markets)
degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, over animal grazing, drought, and deforestation that turns productive land into desert
Genetically Modified (Organism) [GM, GMO]
a plant or animal in which the DNA has been altered through the insertion of genetic material from another source; most often used in agricultural crops to increase the resistance to herbicides or to engineer pesticides into crops.
term used to describe the transformation of agriculture in many developing nations that led to significant increases in agricultural production between the 1940s and 1960s. Characterized by rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers and the development of higher-yield and fast-growing crops through increased technology, pesticides, and fertilizers transferred from the developed to developing world to alleviate the problem of food supply in those regions of the globe.
the art or science of cultivating gardens; gardening; small scale agriculture carried out with simple hand tools such as digging sticks or hoes
Intensive subsistence agriculture
A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasibly yield from a parcel of land.; popular in east, south, and southeast Asia, because the ratio between farmers and arable land is so high; most of the work is done by the family by hand or by animal with processes refined over thousands of years.
System of sustainable agriculture producing crops and livestock naturally by using organic fertilizer (manure, legumes, compost) and natural pest control (bugs that eat harmful bugs, plants that repel bugs, and environmental controls such as crop rotation) instead of using commercial inorganic fertilizers and synthetic pesticides and herbicides.
a type of agricultural activity based on nomadic animal husbandry or the raising of livestock to provide food, clothing, and shelter; a traditional subsistence agricultural system in which practitioners depend on the seasonal movements of livestock within marginal natural environments; a way of life prevalent in most steppe lands
an economy in which large raw material crops are grown and exported usually to Western Europe; the work is very labor intensive and usually involves slaves; usually of a few staple products grown on large farms called plantations. Plantation economies rely on the export of cash crops as a source of income.
economic activities involved with the harvest or extraction of raw materials from the Earth. This includes agriculture, forestry and fishing, mining, and extraction of oil and gas. The primary sector is usually most important in less developed countries, and typically less important in industrial countries. Make up 10% of all economic activities today.
farming for the raising of livestock (particularly cattle); the practice of raising grazing livestock such as cattle or sheep for meat or wool; vast, extensive livestock farms, usually found in remote, marginal areas which are not viable for other types of farming.
Activities that add value to materials by changing their form or combining them into more useful, therefore more valuable, commodities. Includes manufacturing and processing industries/production of energy/construction; Pottery and woodenware; metalworking, automobile production, assembly of electronic goods, textile. Makes up 20% of all economic activities today.
reproduction of plants through annual planting of seeds that result from sexual fertilization; Advantages are withstands freezing, easy transportation, goes along with animal husbandry.
a form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one tropical forest clearings to another; each field is used for crops for relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period.
Slash and burn agriculture
system of cultivation that usually exists in tropical areas where vegetation is cut close to the ground and then ignited. The fire introduces nutrients into the soil, thereby making it productive for a relatively short period of time
self-sufficient agriculture that is small scale and low technology & emphasizes food production for local consumption, not trade
farming methods that preserve long-term productivity of land and minimize pollution, typically by rotating soil-restoring crops with cash crops and reducing inputs of fertilizer and pesticides
Business and labor specializations that provide services to the primary and secondary sectors, to the general community, and to the individual. Vital link between producer and consumer. Includes wholesale and retail trade and restaurants. Makes up 70% of all economic activities today.
commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because truck was a middle English word meaning bartering or the exchange of commodities
Von Thunen's Model
Model developed by Johann H. von Thünen to explain the forces that control the prices of agricultural commodities and how those variable prices affect patterns of agricultural land utilization
a location where goods are transferred from one type of carrier to another (e.g., from barge to railroad)
Bulk gaining industry
Product gains volume or weight during production (e.g., soft-drink bottling, TVs, Automobiles)
industries whose final products weigh less than their constituent parts, and whose processing facilities tend to be located close to sources of raw material (e.g., paper production, steel & copper mining
a country that is poor and whose citizens are mostly agricultural workers but that wants to become more advanced socially and economically (e.g., Mexico, China, Cuba); Characteristics: Lower levels of living and productivity, Less industrialization, Adverse Geography, Lingering Colonialism Pacts [Resource Extraction, Monocrops (coffee, sugar, bananas), Weak governments, Ethnic strife]
Economic indicators of development
used to distinguish LDCs from MDCs
infant mortality rate
a refinement of the death rate to specify the ration of deaths of infants age 1 year or less per 1000 live births
average number of years that individuals are expected to live depending on where and when they are born and spend their lives. May be derived on national, regional or local scale.
natural increase rate
The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate.
crude birth rate
The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
percentage of people who can read and write.
The manufacturing economy and system derived from assembly-line mass production and the mass consumption of standardized goods. Named after Henry Ford, who innovated many of its production techniques
Foreign direct investment
The purchase or construction of foreign factories and other fixed assets by transnational corporations; also the purchase of or merging with foreign companies.
Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM)
Compares the ability of women and men to participate in economic and political decision making.
Gender-Related Development Index (GDI)
Compares the level of development with that of both sexes; An indication of the standard of living in a country, developed by the United Nations (UN)
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
The value of the total output of goods and services produced in a country in a given time period (normally one year).
Human Development Index (HDI)
Indicator of level of development for each country, constructed by United Nations, combining income, literacy, education, and life expectancy
The process of developing an economy founded on the mass manufacturing of goods; associated with the urbanization of society, an extensive division of labor, a wage economy, differentiation of institutions, and growth of mass communication and mass markets. The phase of a country's economic development in which industry grows faster than agriculture and gradually comes to play the leading role in the economy.
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
An international organization established in 1945 that aims to promote international trade and monetary cooperation and the stabilization of exchange rates. Member countries contribute in gold and in their own currencies to provide a reserve on which they may draw to meet foreign obligations during periods of deficit in their international balance of payments. It is affiliated with the United Nations, with headquarters in Washington, DC
the movement of goods or services between countries - - each country has different resources, so they specialize in what they can produce in a cost-effective way, then trade with other countries
Less Developed Country; a country that has low levels of average wealth, industrialization and modernization and often high levels of population growth and people employed in agriculture; a country that is at a relatively early stage in the process of economic development
Factories built by U.S. companies in Mexico near the U.S. border, to take advantage of much cheaper labor costs in Mexico. Mexico's proximity to U.S. lowers transportation costs.
More Developed Country; countries with higher levels of per capita income, industrialization and modernization; usually have lower levels of population growth due to the fact that they have less children; (e.g., Europe, Canada, the United States, Australia, Japan, New Zealand, and Russia)
New international division of labor
Transfer of some types of jobs, especially those requiring low-paid less skilled workers, from more developed to less developed countries.
a socio-economic and political division that exist between the wealthy developed, known collectively as "the north" (Europe, North America and Japan) and the poorer developing countries (least developed countries), or "the south (Asia, Africa, and Latin America); Brandt Line
1) Producing abroad parts or products for domestic use or sale; 2) Subcontracting production or services rather than performing those activities "in house".
Adoption by companies of flexible work rules, such as the allocation of workers to teams that perform a variety of tasks.
Rostow's development model
created by Walter Rostow—proposed that countries went through 5 stages of growth between agricultural and service-based economies. Assumed that each country had at least some form of comparative advantage that could be utilized in international trade and thus fund the country's economic development overtime; STAGE 1: the traditional society. STAGE 2: preconditions for take-off. STAGE 3: the takeoff. STAGE 4: drive to maturity. STAGE 5: age of mass consumption
A large business organization operating in at least two separate national economies; a form of multinational corporation
a specialized agency of the United Nations that makes loans to countries for economic development, trade promotion, and debt consolidation; its formal name is the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
World Trade Organization (WTO)
Established in 1995; Works to reduce barriers to international trade and enforces trade agreements
the number of people living in a given unit area
A type of thematic map that transforms space such that the political unit with the greatest value for some type of data is represented by the largest relative area
A group of the same or similar elements gathered or occurring closely together
the spread of a disease, innovation, or cultural traits through direct contact with another person or another place
the natural landscape as modified by human activities and bearing the imprint of a culture group or society; the built environment
the quantity of anything (people, buildings, animals, traffic, etc.) per unit area
a statement of the amount of spread of a phenomenon over area or around a central location
the decrease in interaction between two phenomena, places, or people as the distance between them increases
the shrinking, stretching, and changes in shape of places that results when a globe is represented on the flat surface of a map
the arrangement of something across earth's surface
the view that the physical environment, particularly climate, controls human action, molds human behavior, and conditions cultural development
the spread of ideas, innovations, fashion, or other phenomena to surrounding area through contact and exchange
a region distinguished by a uniformity of one or more characteristics that can serve as the basis for areal generalization and of contrast with adjacent areas
Functional (nodal) Region
a region differentiated by what occurs within it rather than by a homogeneity of physical or cultural phenomena; an earth area recognized as an operational unit based upon defined organizational criteria; the concept of unity is based on interaction and interdependence between different points within the area
GIS (Geographical Information Systems)
integrated computer programs for handling, processing, and analyzing data specifically referenced to the surface of the earth
GPS (Global Positioning System)
a navigational system involving satellites and computers that can determine the latitude and longitude of a receiver on earth by computing the time difference for signals from different satellites to reach the receiver
the region from which innovative ideas originate
a form of diffusion in which spread of an innovation can proceed wither upward or downward through a hierarchy
the process of describing and interpreting the landscape ecology of an area; resources patches and a landscape network of connecting corridors are identifies, described and classified; the patterns which are detected can then be used to assess the impacts of past disturbance (natural or human), and to plan and regulate further human resource use
Large scale maps
a relatively small ratio between map units and ground units. Large-scale maps usually have higher resolution and cover much smaller regions than small-scale maps
a mathematical method that involves transferring the earth's sphere onto a flat surface; this term can also be used to describe the type of map that results from the process of projecting; all map projections have distortions in either area, direction, distance, or shape
Perceptual (vernacular) Region
a region perceived to exist by its inhabitants or the general populace; It has reality as an element of popular culture or folk culture represented in the mental maps of average people
a particular geographic location with its unique biophysical, cultural, and social characteristics
the philosophical viewpoint that the physical environment offers human beings a set of opportunities from which (within limits) people may choose according to their cultural needs and technological awareness; the emphasis is on freedom of choice and action not allowed under environmental determinism
the diffusion of ideas, innovations, behaviors, and the like from one place to another through migration
any of several techniques of obtaining images of an area or object without having the sensor in direct physical contact with it, as by aerial photography or satellite sensors
the ratio between the size of an area on a map and the actual size of that same area on the earth's surface
Sense of place
state of mind derived through the infusion of a place with meaning and emotion by remembering important events that occurred in that place or by labeling a place with a certain character
the absolute location of a place or activity described by local relief, landform, and other physical (or sometimes cultural) characteristics
Situation (relative location)
the relative location of a place in relation to the physical and cultural characteristics of the surrounding area and the connections and interdependencies within that system; a place's spatial context
Small scale maps
Map scale ratio in which the ratio of units on the map to units on the earth is quite small; usually depict large areas
it does not refer to outer space but to areal extent on the earth's surface
Space time compression (convergence)
expressions of the extent to which improvements in transportation and communication have reduced distance barriers and permitted, for example, the instantaneous diffusion of ideas across space
when a trait of one culture prompts invention or innovation in another
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