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21 terms

Polson's APAH: Islamic Art

Art and art historical terms of Islam
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Orientalism
The fascination with middle eastern cultures
Arabesques
A type of linear surface decoration based on foliage
Calligraphy
handwriting as an artform
Kufic Script
An ornamental, angular, Arabic script. The Qu'ran was originally written in Kufic.
Qur'an
The book of Islam written by Mohammed that borrows from the Old Testament, and the gospels
Mosque
Islamic building for collective worship, from the arabic word masjid - meaning "place for bowing down"
Hypostyle Hall Mosque
Also called an arab-plan mosque, the oldest form of mosque, has interior courtyard, flat roof, many collumned interior (hypostyle), outer arcade
Iwan
A large, decorative, arched, entrance to a mosque
Four-Iwan Mosque
The second oldest form of mosque with a central couryard with four iwans on it.
Central-Plan Mosque
The latest form of mosque. Mosque with a central plan - often with a dome from Byzantine influence - started with the Ottomans (Turks)
Sahn
A courtyard in Islamic architecture
Quibla
The mosque wall oriented toward Mecca. The Qibla wall is indicated by the Mirhab
Mihrab
A recess or niche in the Quibla wall that represents a door to Mecca
Minaret
A tower on or near a mosque from which the faithful are called to prayer 5 times a day
Madrasas
An Islamic institution of higher learning where teaching focuses on theology and law
Ogival arch
A pointed arch used first by pre Islamic middle easterners & extensively in Islamic art & in gothic architecture
Muquarnes
small niche like components stacked in tiers to fill the transition between differing verical and horizontal planes
Abd al-Rahman I (dates)
founder and ruler of the Umayyad dynasty in Iberia, 755 - 788
Dome of the Rock
687-91, Jerusalem, Israel, Islamic
Prayer hall, Great Mosque, Cordoba
785, Cordoba, Spain, Islamic
Taj Mahal
1631-48, Agra, India, Islamic