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in small european territory, near middle east, west asia // ice age climate // lived separately from archaic




east asia

archaic sapiens

widest, back of skull // on top of am sapien skull // receding forehead // sagittal keeling // occipital bun

greatest cranial breadth

no chin // nasal aperture // heavy supraorbital torus // unibrow

neandertal facial traits


upper jaw extends and lower jaw recedes // no chin and big mouth

h neandertalensis

neandertal and splitters

middle paleolithic // first produced by archaic and neandertals // n repercussion same core // multiple flakes

neandertal mousterian tool industry

kebara cave

48 - 60,000 ya evidence of neandertals hunting

analyze animal bones // 21,000 fragments // charred, control of fire // prime adult remains // butchering strictly done by humans

faunal analysis

40,000-50,000 ya // 4 burials // shanidar 1, humans began caring for others // shanidar 4, burial w grave goods and flowers

shanidar, iraq

burial of male individual // 20 stone lined pits // cave bear remains // ritual

regourdou, france

130,000 ya // beginning of neandertal life span // hominid fragments // no bones in tact // charred juveniles // cannibalism

krapina, croatia


humans are consumed outside the group


consume member within your gorup

secondary de fleshing

remove flesh prior to burial // soul escapes to after life

100,000 ya // cannibalism, de fleshing // stone tools // bone fragments

moula guercy, france

kebara cave // neandertals speaking

hyoid bone

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