nutrients !! [ bye-oh ]

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Terms in this set (...)

food
provide energy 4 activites
synthesize new protoplasm
maintain good health
water in hooman
medium/solvent for chem reactions
major component of lubricant in joints/digestive juices/blood
regulates body temp
transports digested food subs/excretory products/hormones
water in 3
photosynthesis
keep cells turgid
transport materials through xylem
transport food subs through phloem
carbohydrates
organic cmpds
carbon & hydrogen (2) & oxygen (1)
monosaccharides
glucose
fructose
galactose
maltose
glucose ^2
reducing sugar
formed when starch is partially digested
sucrose
glucose + fructose
absent in mammalia
not a reducing sugar
lactose
glucose + galactose
in mammalia milk
reducing sugar
starch
thousands of glucose molecules
most impt carbo source
storage form of carbo in plants
hydrolised by acid & amylase
cellulose
many glucose mols
forms main part of cell walls
indigestible by hooman
glycogen
many many glucose molecules condensed to form highly branched chains of glucose units
storage form of carbs in mammalia
liver and muscles
functions of carbs
first source of energy
forms supporting structures
converted to organic cmpds (amino acids & fats)
formation of nucleic acids
synthesize lubricants
fats
carbon + hydrogen + oxygen
fatty acids (3) + glycerol (1)
insoluble in water but soluble in alcohol
saturated: in animals // solid at rtp // f.a chains straight
unsaturated: in vegetables // liquid @ rtp // chains bent
functions of fats
efficient source & storage of energy
insulating material
solvent of fat soluble vitamins (hormones)
constituent of protoplasm
proteins
carbon + hydrogen + oxygen + nitrogen and sulphur
largest & most complex molecule
made from amino acids
20 naturally occuring a.a
peptide bond b/w aa is strong
protein > polypeptides > amino acids
functions of proteins
synthesis of protoplasm
growth & repair of worn out body cells
synthesis of hormones and enzymes
formation of antibodies
last source of energy
iodine test
for starch
1. chop up specimen
2. +2 drops of iodine solution
blue-black = present
yellowish brown= absent
benedict's test
for reducing sugars
1. 2cm^3 of benedict's solution + 2cm^3 of test soln
2. shake + add to boiling water for 2-3 min
blue soln: absent
green precipitate: small amt
yellow-orange ppt: moderate
brick red ppt: large amt
ethanol emulsion test
for fats
1. chop imto small pieces
2. place in test tube + 2cm^3 of ethanol
3. shake and let settle
4. decant ethanol into another tt w/ 2cm^3 of h20
white emulsion: present
clear soln: absent
biuret test
for proteins
1. 2cm^3 sodium hydroxide + 2cm^3 test soln & shake
2. 1% copper sulfate soln drop by drop and shake
violet coloration: present
blue: absent
* violet only in presence of peptide bonds
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