Organizational Behavior: Chapters 5-9

Key Concepts:

Terms in this set (113)

the extent to which a person observes his or her own self-expressive behavior and adapts it to the demands of the situation.
- High self-monitors are sometimes called chameleons, who readily adapt their self-presentation to their surroundings. Low self-monitors, on the other hand, often are criticized for being on their own planet and insensitive to others.
-Individuals high in self-monitoring are thought to regulate their expressive self-presentation for the sake of desired public appearances, and thus be highly responsive to social and interpersonal cues of situationally appropriate performances. Individuals low in self-monitoring are thought to lack either the ability or the motivation to so regulate their expressive self-presentations. Their expressive behaviors, instead, are thought to functionally reflect their own enduring and momentary inner states, including their attitudes, traits, and feelings
For high, moderate, and low self-monitors: Become more consciously aware of your self-image and how it affects others.

For high self-monitors: Don't overdo it by evolving from a successful chameleon into someone who is widely perceived as insincere, dishonest, phony, and untrustworthy. You cannot be everything to everyone.

For low self-monitors: You can bend without breaking, so try to be a bit more accommodating while being true to your basic beliefs. Don't wear out your welcome when communicating. Practice reading and adjusting to nonverbal cues in various public situations. If your conversation partner is bored or distracted, stop—because they are not really listening.
Researchers, test developers, and organizations that administer personality assessments offer the following suggestions for getting started or for evaluating whether tests already in use are appropriate for forecasting job performance:

Determine what you hope to accomplish. If you are looking to find the best fit of job and applicant, analyze the aspects of the position that are most critical for it.

Look for outside help to determine if a test exists or can be developed to screen applicants for the traits that best fit the position. Industrial psychologists, professional organizations, and a number of Internet sites provide resources.

Insist that any test recommended by a consultant or vendor be validated scientifically for the specific purpose that you have defined. Vendors should be able to cite some independent, credible research supporting a test's correlation with job performance.

Ask the test provider to document the legal basis for any assessment: Is it fair? Is it job related? Is it biased against any racial or ethnic group? Does it violate an applicant's right to privacy under state or federal laws? Vendors should provide a lawyer's statement that a test does not adversely affect any protected class, and employers may want to get their own lawyer's opinion, as well.

Make sure that every staff member who will be administering tests or analyzing results is educated about how to do so properly and keeps results confidential. Use the scores on personality tests in tandem with other factors that you believe are essential to the job—such as skills and experience—to create a comprehensive evaluation of the merits of each candidate, and apply those criteria identically to each applicant.
Work-family balance begins at home. Case studies of successful executives reveal that family and spousal support is critical for reaching senior level positions.This in turn suggests that both men and women need help with domestic responsibilities if there is any chance of achieving work-family balance. You are encouraged to hire domestic help if you need and can afford it.

An employer's family-supportive philosophy is more important than specific programs. Many employers offer family-friendly programs today, including child and elder day care assistance, parental leave, telecommuting, and flexible work schedules. However, if employees are afraid or reluctant to take advantage of those programs because the organization's culture values hard work and long hours above all else, families will inevitably suffer. To be truly family-friendly, the organization needs to provide programs and back them up with a family-supportive philosophy, culture, and resources.

Informal flexibility in work hours and in allowing people to work at home is essential to promoting work-family balance. Quite simply, flexibility allows people to cope more effectively with competing demands across their personal and work lives. This conclusion was supported by a recent study of 511 HR professionals. Ninety-one percent of respondents indicated that flexible work arrangements positively influenced morale, and 58 percent said that work-family balance "is the most effective tactic for attracting, rewarding and retaining top employees.

Supportive bosses and colleagues can help. Research demonstrated that work-family conflict was lower when employees had good relationships with their direct supervisor and work colleagues.It is important that you proactively discuss potential work-family conflicts with your boss and colleagues prior to their occurrence as opposed to after the fact.

The importance of work-family balance varies across generations. A recent longitudinal study of work values across 16,000 people from different generational groups demonstrated that (1) Gen Ys and Gen Xs preferred more leisure time and had higher extrinsic values (e.g., desire for salary) than Baby Boomers, and (2) Gen Ys had lower altruistic values (e.g., desire to help others) and intrinsic values (e.g., desire to have an interesting job) than Boomers. These results suggest that organizations should consider implementing work policies that are targeted toward different generational groups. For example, flextime and compressed work programs may be used to attract and retain both Gen Ys and Gen Xers while job enrichment.

Take a proactive approach to managing work-family conflict. A recent meta-analysis of research involving more than 32,000 people demonstrated that an individual's personal life spills over to his or her work life and vice versa. This means that employees' job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and intentions to quit are significantly related to the amount of work-family conflict that exists in their lives. Organizations thus are encouraged to train managers to use family-supportive supervisory behaviors because research shows that managers can be taught to help employees reduce their levels of work-family conflict
"the harnessing of organization members' selves to their work roles; in engagement, people employ and express themselves physically, cognitively, and emotionally during role performance."

The essence of this definition is the idea that engaged employees "give it their all" at work. Further study of this attitudinal variable reveals that it contains four components: (1) feelings of urgency, (2) feelings of being focused, (3) feelings of intensity, and (4) feelings of enthusiasm

caused by a host of variables that can be separated into two categories: personal factors and contextual or work-environment factors.
-Personal characteristics found or thought to influence employee engagement include positive or optimistic personalities, proactive personality, conscientiousness, PE fit, and being present or mindful. Mindfulness represents the extent to which someone is focused on a moment in time and what is happening rather than daydreaming about something or somewhere else.
-contextual factors that potentially impact employee engagement. One clearly involves organizational culture. For example, employees are more likely to be engaged when an organization has a clan culture that promotes employee development, recognition, and trust between management and employees
Job security and feelings of psychological safety also propel employee engagement.
-Job security and feelings of psychological safety also propel employee engagement.

employee engagement is higher when people feel that they are being supported by both their direct supervisor and the company as a whole and when they have a line of sight with the organization's vision, strategies, and goals: Line of sight represents the extent to which employees understand how their jobs influence the achievement of broader strategic goals

employee engagement was significantly associated with organizational-level customer satisfaction/loyalty, profitability, productivity, turnover, and safety outcomes.a positive relationship between employee engagement and employees' performance and physical and psychological well-being, and corporate-level financial performance and customer satisfaction
Need fulfillment - extent to which the characteristics of a job allow an individual to fulfill his or her needs

Discrepancies - satisfaction is a result of met expectations. Met expectations represent the difference between what an individual expects to receive from a job, such as good pay and promotional opportunities, and what he or she actually receives. When expectations are greater than what is received, a person will be dissatisfied. In contrast, this model predicts that an individual will be satisfied when he or she attains outcomes above and beyond expectations.

Value attainment - that satisfaction results from the perception that a job allows for fulfillment of an individual's important work values.

Equity - satisfaction is a function of how "fairly" an individual is treated at work. Satisfaction results from one's perception that work outcomes, relative to inputs, compare favorably with a significant other's outcomes/inputs.

Dispositional/Genetic Components - the belief that job satisfaction is partly a function of both personal traits and genetic factors. As such, this model implies that stable individual differences are just as important in explaining job satisfaction as are characteristics of the work environment. Dispositions had stronger relationships with intrinsic aspects of a job (e.g., having autonomy) than with extrinsic aspects of work (e.g., receipt of rewards). Genetic factors also were found to significantly predict life satisfaction, well-being, and general job satisfaction
is the study of how people make sense of other people and themselves. It focuses on how ordinary people think about people and how they think they think about people.
Three of the stages in this model—selective attention/comprehension, encoding and simplification, and storage and retention—describe how specific information and environmental stimuli are observed and stored in memory. The fourth and final stage, retrieval and response, involves turning mental representations into real-world judgments and decisions.

Stage 1 - Attention - the process of becoming consciously aware of something or someone. Attention can be focused on information either from the environment or from memory.

Stage 2 - Encoding - raw information is interpreted or translated into mental representations. To accomplish this, perceivers assign pieces of information to cognitive categories. "By category we mean a number of objects that are considered equivalent. Categories are generally designated by names, e.g., dog, animal."
A schema represents a person's mental picture or summary of a particular event or type of stimulus.

Stage 3 - Storage and Retention - This phase involves storage of information in long-term memory. long-term memory is made up of three compartments (or wings) containing categories of information about events, semantic materials, and people.

Event Memory This compartment is composed of categories containing information about both specific and general events. These memories describe appropriate sequences of events in well-known situations, such as going to a restaurant , going on a job interview, going to a food store, or going to a movie.

Semantic Memory Semantic memory refers to general knowledge about the world. In so doing, it functions as a mental dictionary of concepts. Each concept contains a definition (e.g., a good leader) and associated traits (outgoing), emotional states (happy), physical characteristics (tall), and behaviors (works hard). Just as there are schemata for general events, concepts in semantic memory are stored as schemata.

Person Memory Categories within this compartment contain information about a single individual (your professor) or groups of people (professors). You are more likely to remember information about a person, event, or an advertisement if it contains characteristics that are similar to something stored in the compartments of memory.

Stage 4 - Retrieval and Response - People retrieve information from memory when they make judgments and decisions. Our ultimate judgments and decisions are either based on the process of drawing on, interpreting, and integrating categorical information stored in long-term memory or on retrieving a summary judgment that was already made.
*Need for achievement
Desire to accomplish something difficult.
Achievement-motivated people share three common characteristics: (1) they prefer working on tasks of moderate difficulty; (2) they prefer situations in which performance is due to their efforts rather than to other factors, such as luck; and (3) they desire more feedback on their successes and failures than do low achievers.

*Need for affiliation

prefer to spend more time maintaining social relationships, joining groups, and wanting to be loved. Individuals high in this need are not the most effective managers or leaders because they tend to avoid conflict, have a hard time making difficult decisions without worrying about being disliked, and avoid giving others negative feedback

*Need for power
Desire to Influence, coach, teach, or encourage others to achieve.
People with a high need for power like to work and are concerned with discipline and self-respect. There are positive and negative sides to this need. The negative face of power is characterized by an "if I win, you lose" mentality. In contrast, people with a positive orientation to power focus on accomplishing group goals and helping employees obtain the feeling of competence.

To accomplish something difficult. To master, manipulate, or organize physical objects, human beings, or ideas. To do this as rapidly and as independently as possible. To overcome obstacles and attain a high standard. To excel one's self. To rival and surpass others. To increase self-regard by the successful exercise of talent.
Herzberg found separate and distinct clusters of factors associated with job satisfaction and dissatisfaction.

Job satisfaction was more frequently associated with achievement, recognition, characteristics of the work, responsibility, and advancement. These factors were all related to outcomes associated with the content of the task being performed. Herzberg labeled these factors motivators because each was associated with strong effort and good performance. He hypothesized that motivators cause a person to move from a state of no satisfaction to satisfaction

job dissatisfaction to be associated primarily with factors in the work context or environment. Specifically, company policy and administration, technical supervision, salary, interpersonal relations with one's supervisor, and working conditions were most frequently mentioned by employees expressing job dissatisfaction. Herzberg labeled this second cluster of factors hygiene factors. He further proposed that they were not motivational. At best, Herzberg proposed that individuals will experience no job dissatisfaction when he or she has no grievances about hygiene factors

Herzberg concludes that "the opposite of job satisfaction is not job dissatisfaction, but rather no job satisfaction; and similarly, the opposite of job dissatisfaction is not job satisfaction, but no dissatisfaction." Herzberg thus asserts that the dissatisfaction-satisfaction continuum contains a zero midpoint at which dissatisfaction and satisfaction are absent. Conceivably, an organization member who has good supervision, pay, and working conditions but a tedious and unchallenging task with little chance of advancement would be at the zero midpoint. That person would have no dissatisfaction (because of good hygiene factors) and no satisfaction (because of a lack of motivators).
Motivation boils down to the decision of how much effort to exert in a specific task situation. Generally, expectancy theory can be used to predict motivation and behavior in any situation in which a choice between two or more alternatives must be made. For instance, it can be used to predict whether to quit or stay at a job; whether to exert substantial or minimal effort at a task; and whether to major in management, finance, marketing, psychology, or communication.

represents an individual's belief that a particular degree of effort will be followed by a particular level of performance. The following factors influence an employee's expectancy perceptions:
Previous success at the task
Help received from a supervisor and subordinates
Information necessary to complete the task
Good materials and equipment to work with

A performance outcome perception. It represents a person's belief that a particular outcome is contingent on accomplishing a specific level of performance. Performance is instrumental when it leads to something else. For example, passing exams is instrumental to graduating from college.

the positive or negative value people place on outcomes. For example, most employees have a positive valence for receiving additional money or recognition. In contrast, job stress and being laid off would likely result in negative valence for most individuals. In Vroom's expectancy model, outcomes refer to different consequences that are contingent on performance, such as pay, promotions, or recognition. An outcome's valence depends on an individual's needs and can be measured for research purposes with scales ranging from a negative value to a positive value.

different consequences that are contingent on performance
Specific high goals lead to greater performance. Goal specificity pertains to the quantifiability of a goal. people demonstrated that performance was greater when people had specific high goals.50

Feedback enhances the effect of specific, difficult goals. Feedback plays a key role in all of our lives. Feedback lets people know if they are headed toward their goals or if they are off course and need to redirect their efforts. Goals plus feedback is the recommended approach. Goals inform people about performance standards and expectations so that they can channel their energies accordingly. In turn, feedback provides the information needed to adjust direction, effort, and strategies for goal accomplishment.

Participative goals, assigned goals, and self-set goals are equally effective. Both managers and researchers are interested in identifying the best way to set goals.

Action planning facilitates goal accomplishment. An action plan outlines the activities or tasks that need to be accomplished in order to obtain a goal. They can also include dates associated with completing each task, resources needed, and obstacles that must be overcome. Managers can use action plans as a vehicle to have performance discussions with employees, and employees can use them to monitor progress toward goal achievement. An action plan also serves as a cue to remind us of what we should be working on, which in turn was found to lead to goal-relevant behavior and success.

Goal commitment and monetary incentives affect goal-setting outcomes. Goal commitment is the extent to which an individual is personally committed to achieving a goal. In general, an individual is expected to persist in attempts to accomplish a goal when he or she is committed to it. Researchers believe that goal commitment moderates the relationship between the difficulty of a goal and performance. That is, difficult goals lead to higher performance only when employees are committed to their goals. Conversely, difficult goals are hypothesized to lead to lower performance when people are not committed to their goals.