Organizational Behavior: Chapters 5-9
Terms in this set (113)
variability among workers is substantial at all levels but increases dramatically with job complexity. In life insurance sales, for example, variability in performance is around six times as great as in routine clerical jobs
bridges between self-concept and self-expression.
"the concept the individual has of himself as a physical, social, and spiritual or moral being."10 In other words, because you have a self-concept, you recognize yourself as a distinct human being. A self-concept would be impossible without the capacity to think about complex things and processes
represent "any knowledge, opinion, or belief about the environment, about oneself, or about one's behavior."
those involving anticipation, introspection, planning, goal setting, evaluating, and setting personal standards are particularly relevant to OB.
a belief about one's own self-worth based on an overall self-evaluation.
is measured by having survey respondents indicate their agreement or disagreement with both positive and negative statements.
increasing during young and middle adulthood, reaching a peak at about age 60 years, and then declining in old age
from 31 countries worldwide, a moderate positive correlation was found between self-esteem and life satisfaction. But the relationship was stronger in individualistic cultures
individualistic cultures socialize people to focus more on themselves, while people in collectivist cultures "are socialized to fit into the community and to do their duty.
Braden's Six Pillars of Self-Esteem
a person's belief about his or her chances of successfully accomplishing a specific task.
-arises from the gradual acquisition of complex cognitive, social, linguistic, and/or physical skills through experience."
-role models can inspire us to build self-efficacy The relationship between self-efficacy and performance is a cyclical one. Efficacy → performance cycles can spiral upward toward success or downward toward failure.
would involve cognitive appraisal of the interaction between your perceived capability and situational opportunities and obstacles
People program themselves for success or failure by enacting their self-efficacy expectations
significant positive correlation between self-efficacy and job performance
-can be boosted in the workplace through careful hiring, challenging assignments, training and coaching, goal setting, supportive leadership and mentoring, and rewards for improvement.
the extent to which a person observes his or her own self-expressive behavior and adapts it to the demands of the situation.
- High self-monitors are sometimes called chameleons, who readily adapt their self-presentation to their surroundings. Low self-monitors, on the other hand, often are criticized for being on their own planet and insensitive to others.
-Individuals high in self-monitoring are thought to regulate their expressive self-presentation for the sake of desired public appearances, and thus be highly responsive to social and interpersonal cues of situationally appropriate performances. Individuals low in self-monitoring are thought to lack either the ability or the motivation to so regulate their expressive self-presentations. Their expressive behaviors, instead, are thought to functionally reflect their own enduring and momentary inner states, including their attitudes, traits, and feelings
For high, moderate, and low self-monitors: Become more consciously aware of your self-image and how it affects others.
For high self-monitors: Don't overdo it by evolving from a successful chameleon into someone who is widely perceived as insincere, dishonest, phony, and untrustworthy. You cannot be everything to everyone.
For low self-monitors: You can bend without breaking, so try to be a bit more accommodating while being true to your basic beliefs. Don't wear out your welcome when communicating. Practice reading and adjusting to nonverbal cues in various public situations. If your conversation partner is bored or distracted, stop—because they are not really listening.
occurs when one comes to integrate beliefs about one's organization into one's identity
the combination of stable physical and mental characteristics that give the individual his or her identity.
These characteristics or traits—including how one looks, thinks, acts, and feels—are the product of interacting genetic and environmental influences.
Extraversion and conscientiousness were found to be the most stable of the Big Five
conscientiousness had the strongest positive correlation with job performance and training performance. how to help conscientious employees perform well. Specifically, they prefer goal-focused leadership, like high-complexity jobs, and need valid feedback that will help them learn and not frustrate their pursuit of goals
entrepreneurs score high on conscientiousness. Another relevant finding: Extraversion (an outgoing personality) correlated positively with promotions, salary level, and career satisfaction. And, as one might expect, neuroticism (low emotional stability) was associated with low career satisfaction.
someone who is relatively unconstrained by situational forces and who effects environmental change.
positively associated with individual, team, and organizational success.
Internal Locus of Control
the belief that one controls the events and consequences affecting one's life
Proactive people identify opportunities and act on them, show initiative, take action, and persevere until meaningful change occurs.
an "internal" tends to attribute positive outcomes, such as getting a passing grade on an exam, to her or his own abilities. Accordingly, an "internal" tends to blame negative events, such as failing an exam, on personal shortcomings—not studying hard enough, perhaps.
External Locus of Control
tend to attribute key outcomes in their lives to environmental causes, such as luck or fate
Researchers, test developers, and organizations that administer personality assessments offer the following suggestions for getting started or for evaluating whether tests already in use are appropriate for forecasting job performance:
Determine what you hope to accomplish. If you are looking to find the best fit of job and applicant, analyze the aspects of the position that are most critical for it.
Look for outside help to determine if a test exists or can be developed to screen applicants for the traits that best fit the position. Industrial psychologists, professional organizations, and a number of Internet sites provide resources.
Insist that any test recommended by a consultant or vendor be validated scientifically for the specific purpose that you have defined. Vendors should be able to cite some independent, credible research supporting a test's correlation with job performance.
Ask the test provider to document the legal basis for any assessment: Is it fair? Is it job related? Is it biased against any racial or ethnic group? Does it violate an applicant's right to privacy under state or federal laws? Vendors should provide a lawyer's statement that a test does not adversely affect any protected class, and employers may want to get their own lawyer's opinion, as well.
Make sure that every staff member who will be administering tests or analyzing results is educated about how to do so properly and keeps results confidential. Use the scores on personality tests in tandem with other factors that you believe are essential to the job—such as skills and experience—to create a comprehensive evaluation of the merits of each candidate, and apply those criteria identically to each applicant.
represents a broad and stable characteristic responsible for a person's maximum—as opposed to typical—performance on mental and physical tasks
the specific capacity to physically manipulate objects.
Among the many desirable skills and competencies in organizational life are written and spoken communication, initiative, decisiveness, tolerance, problem solving, adaptability, and resilience. Importantly, our cautions about on-the-job personality testing extend to ability, intelligence, and skill testing and certification
Before moving on, we need to say something about a modern-day threat to abilities, skills, and general competence. That threat, according to public health officials, is sleep deprivation. only about four in 10—of the respondents from each ethnic group say they get a good night's sleep on most nights.job-related stress was the number-one response (42%) to the question "What's robbing you of a good night's sleep? Staying awake 24 hours impairs cognitive psychomotor performance to the same degree as having a 0.1 percent blood alcohol level."
represents an individual's capacity for constructive thinking, reasoning, and problem solving
Charles Spearman proposed in 1927 that all cognitive performance is determined by two types of abilities. The first can be characterized as a general mental ability needed for all cognitive tasks. The second is unique to the task at hand
Howard Gardner concept of multiple intelligences (MI) includes not only cognitive abilities but social and physical abilities and skills as well:
Linguistic intelligence: Potential to learn and use spoken and written languages.
Logical-mathematical intelligence: Potential for deductive reasoning, problem analysis, and mathematical calculation.
Musical intelligence: Potential to appreciate, compose, and perform music.
Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence: Potential to use mind and body to coordinate physical movement.
Spatial intelligence: Potential to recognize and use patterns.
Interpersonal intelligence: Potential to understand, connect with, and effectively work with others.
Intrapersonal intelligence: Potential to understand and regulate oneself.
Naturalist intelligence: Potential to live in harmony with one's environment.
complex, patterned, organismic reactions to how we think we are doing in our lifelong efforts to survive and flourish and to achieve what we wish for ourselves Lazarus's definition of emotions centers on a person's goals.
The word organismic is appropriate because emotions involve the whole person—biological, psychological, and social. Importantly, psychologists draw a distinction between felt and displayed emotions. a person might feel angry (felt emotion) at a rude co-worker but not make a nasty remark in return (displayed emotion)
the ability to manage oneself and one's relationships in mature and constructive ways. Referred to by some as EI and others as EQ, emotional intelligence is said to have four key components: self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship management. The first two constitute personal competence; the second two feed into social competence
We, quite literally, can catch another person's bad mood or displayed negative emotions.
Smile, look happy for the customers," employees are told over and over. But what if the employee is having a rotten day
can be particularly detrimental to the employee performing the labor and can take its toll both psychologically and physically. Employees ... may bottle up feelings of frustration, resentment, and anger, which are not appropriate to express. These feelings result, in part, from the constant requirement to monitor one's negative emotions and express positive ones. If not given a healthy expressive outlet, this emotional repression can lead to a syndrome of emotional exhaustion and burnout.
Striving for success by developing one's self-efficacy, optimism, hope, and resiliency.
[PsyCap is] an individual's positive psychological state of development and is characterized by:
(1) having confidence (self-efficacy) to take on and put in the necessary effort to succeed at challenging tasks;
(2) making a positive attribution (optimism) about succeeding now and in the future;
(3) persevering toward goals, and when necessary, redirecting paths to goals (hope) in order to succeed; and
(4) when beset by problems and adversity, sustaining and bouncing back and even beyond (resiliency) to attain success.
the ability to bounce back from major blows in life, can be developed through deliberate practice,
It is activity designed specifically to improve performance, often with a teacher's help; it can be repeated a lot; feedback on results is continuously available; it's highly demanding mentally, whether the activity is purely intellectual, such as chess or business-related activities, or heavily physical, such as sports; and it isn't much fun.
Wiseman's four guidelines for improving your luck:
Be active and involved. Be open to new experiences and networking with others to encounter more lucky chance opportunities.
Listen to your hunches about luck. Learn when to listen to your intuitive gut feelings. Meditation and mind-clearing activities can help.
Expect to be lucky no matter how bad the situation. Remain optimistic and work to make your expectations a self-fulfilling prophecy.
Turn your bad luck into good fortune. Take control of bad situations by remaining calm, positive, and focused on a better future.
a realistic assessment of one's own contribution and the recognition of the contribution of others, along with luck and good fortune that made one's own success possible
has been called the silent virtue
Humble individuals have a down-to-earth perspective of themselves and of the events and relationships in their lives. Humility involves a capability to evaluate success, failure, work, and life without exaggeration. Furthermore, humility enables leaders to distinguish the delicate line between such characteristics as healthy self-confidence, self-esteem, and self-assessment, and those of over-confidence, narcissism, and stubbornness. Humility is the mid-point between the two negative extremes of arrogance and lack of self-esteem. This depiction allows one to see that a person can be humble and competitive or humble and ambitious at the same time, which contradicts common—but mistaken—views about humility.
Schwartz's Value Theory
Schwartz believes that values are motivational in that they "represent broad goals that apply across contexts and time
Schwartz's Value Theory Continued
The circular pattern reveals which values are most strongly related and which ones are in conflict. In general, adjacent values like self-direction and universalism are positively related, whereas values that are further apart (e.g., self-direction and power) are less strongly related. Taking this one step further, Schwartz proposes that values that are in opposing directions from the center conflict with each other. Examples are power and universalism or stimulation and conformity/tradition. For instance, the drive to live a stimulating life by engaging in activities like skydiving or mountain climbing would conflict with the desire to live a moderate or traditional life.
Intrapersonal Value Conflict
people are likely to experience inner conflict and stress when personal values conflict with each other. For employees who want balance in their lives, a stressful conflict can arise when one values
Therapists suggest that this type of value conflict can be reduced by "taking pride in characteristics that can't be stripped away—virtue, integrity, honesty, generosity. They also recommend investing more time and pride in relationships with family, friends, and community."6 In general, people are happier and less stressed when their personal values are aligned.
Interpersonal Value Conflict
This type of value conflict often is at the core of personality conflicts, and such conflicts can negatively affect one's career
Individual-Organization Value Conflict
Conflict can occur when values espoused and enacted by the organization collide with employees' personal values. We defined this type of conflict as PE fit. PE fit represents the extent to which personal characteristics match those from a work environment
Family values involve enduring beliefs about the importance of family and who should play key family roles (e.g., child rearing, housekeeping, and income earning). Work values center on the relative importance of work and career goals in one's life.
-Value similarity relates to the degree of consensus among family members about family values. When a housewife launches a business venture despite her husband's desire to be the sole bread winner, lack of family value similarity causes work-family conflict.
-Value congruence, on the other hand, involves the amount of value agreement between employee and employer. If, for example, refusing to go on a business trip to stay home for a child's birthday is viewed as disloyalty to the company, lack of value congruence can trigger work-family conflict.
-work-family conflict can take two distinct forms: work interference with family and family interference with work
-The last two boxes in the model—value attainment and job and life satisfaction—are a package deal. Satisfaction tends to be higher for those who live according to their values and lower for those who do not.
Work-Family Conflict - Practical Research Insights About
Work-family balance begins at home. Case studies of successful executives reveal that family and spousal support is critical for reaching senior level positions.This in turn suggests that both men and women need help with domestic responsibilities if there is any chance of achieving work-family balance. You are encouraged to hire domestic help if you need and can afford it.
An employer's family-supportive philosophy is more important than specific programs. Many employers offer family-friendly programs today, including child and elder day care assistance, parental leave, telecommuting, and flexible work schedules. However, if employees are afraid or reluctant to take advantage of those programs because the organization's culture values hard work and long hours above all else, families will inevitably suffer. To be truly family-friendly, the organization needs to provide programs and back them up with a family-supportive philosophy, culture, and resources.
Informal flexibility in work hours and in allowing people to work at home is essential to promoting work-family balance. Quite simply, flexibility allows people to cope more effectively with competing demands across their personal and work lives. This conclusion was supported by a recent study of 511 HR professionals. Ninety-one percent of respondents indicated that flexible work arrangements positively influenced morale, and 58 percent said that work-family balance "is the most effective tactic for attracting, rewarding and retaining top employees.
Supportive bosses and colleagues can help. Research demonstrated that work-family conflict was lower when employees had good relationships with their direct supervisor and work colleagues.It is important that you proactively discuss potential work-family conflicts with your boss and colleagues prior to their occurrence as opposed to after the fact.
The importance of work-family balance varies across generations. A recent longitudinal study of work values across 16,000 people from different generational groups demonstrated that (1) Gen Ys and Gen Xs preferred more leisure time and had higher extrinsic values (e.g., desire for salary) than Baby Boomers, and (2) Gen Ys had lower altruistic values (e.g., desire to help others) and intrinsic values (e.g., desire to have an interesting job) than Boomers. These results suggest that organizations should consider implementing work policies that are targeted toward different generational groups. For example, flextime and compressed work programs may be used to attract and retain both Gen Ys and Gen Xers while job enrichment.
Take a proactive approach to managing work-family conflict. A recent meta-analysis of research involving more than 32,000 people demonstrated that an individual's personal life spills over to his or her work life and vice versa. This means that employees' job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and intentions to quit are significantly related to the amount of work-family conflict that exists in their lives. Organizations thus are encouraged to train managers to use family-supportive supervisory behaviors because research shows that managers can be taught to help employees reduce their levels of work-family conflict
defined as "a learned predisposition to respond in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object
While values represent global beliefs that influence behavior across all situations, attitudes relate only to behavior directed toward specific objects, persons, or situations. Values and attitudes generally, but not always, are in harmony.
Three factors accounted for middle-age attitude stability: (1) greater personal certainty, (2) perceived abundance of knowledge, and (3) a need for strong attitudes.
Attitude - Affective Component
contains the feelings or emotions one has about a given object or situation.
How do you feel
Attitude - Cognitive Component
reflects the beliefs or ideas one has about an object or situation.
What do you think
Attitude - Behavioral Component
refers to how one intends or expects to act toward someone or something
psychological discomfort a person experiences when his or her attitudes or beliefs are incompatible with his or her behavior
people will seek to reduce the "dissonance," or psychological tension, through one of three main methods:
Change your attitude or behavior, or both. This is the simplest solution when confronted with cognitive dissonance. Returning to our example about needing a blood transfusion, this would amount to either (a) telling yourself that you can't get AIDS through blood and take the transfusion or (b) simply refusing to take the transfusion.
Belittle the importance of the inconsistent behavior. This happens all the time. In our example, you could belittle the belief that you can get AIDS from the foreign blood bank. (The doctor said she regularly uses blood from that blood bank.)
Find consonant elements that outweigh dissonant ones. This approach entails rationalizing away the dissonance. You can tell yourself that you are taking the transfusion because you have no other options. After all, you could die if you don't get the required surgery.
Intention Determinants of
Attitude toward the behavior
the degree to which a person has a favorable or unfavorable evaluation or appraisal of the behavior in question.
refers to the perceived social pressure to perform or not to perform the behavior
the degree of perceived behavior control, which ... refers to the perceived ease or difficulty of performing the behavior and it is assumed to reflect past experience as well as anticipated impediments and obstacles.
Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior
Ajzen ultimately developed and refined a model focusing on intentions as the key link between attitudes and planned behavior
Importantly, this model only predicts behavior under an individual's control, not behavior due to circumstances beyond one's control.
According to this model, changing behavior starts with the recognition that behavior is modified through intentions, which in turn are influenced by three different determinants. Managers can thus influence behavioral change by doing or saying things that affect the three determinants of employees' intentions to exhibit a specific behavior: attitude toward the behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control
The first is the attitude toward the behavior and refers to the degree to which a person has a favorable or unfavorable evaluation or appraisal of the behavior in question. The second predictor is a social factor termed subjective norm; it refers to the perceived social pressure to perform or not to perform the behavior. The third antecedent of intention is the degree of perceived behavior control, which ... refers to the perceived ease or difficulty of performing the behavior and it is assumed to reflect past experience as well as anticipated impediments and obstacles
reflects the extent to which an individual identifies with an organization and is committed to its goals.
-Affective commitment refers to the employee's emotional attachment to, identification with, and involvement in the organization. Employees with a strong affective commitment continue employment with an organization because they want to do so. Affective commitment is enhanced by hiring people whose personal values are consistent with the organization's values. A positive, satisfying work environment also should increase employees' desire to stay.
-Continuance commitment refers to an awareness of the costs associated with leaving the organization. Employees whose primary link to the organization is based on continuance commitment remain because they need to do so. Continuance commitment is enhanced by offering employees a variety of progressive benefits and human resource programs.
-Finally, normative commitment reflects a feeling of obligation to continue employment. Employees with a high level of normative commitment feel that they ought to remain with the organization
normative commitment is influenced by organizational culture and the socialization process. Normative commitment can be increased by making sure that management does not breach its psychological contracts and by trying to enhance the level of trust throughout the organization.
"the harnessing of organization members' selves to their work roles; in engagement, people employ and express themselves physically, cognitively, and emotionally during role performance."
The essence of this definition is the idea that engaged employees "give it their all" at work. Further study of this attitudinal variable reveals that it contains four components: (1) feelings of urgency, (2) feelings of being focused, (3) feelings of intensity, and (4) feelings of enthusiasm
caused by a host of variables that can be separated into two categories: personal factors and contextual or work-environment factors.
-Personal characteristics found or thought to influence employee engagement include positive or optimistic personalities, proactive personality, conscientiousness, PE fit, and being present or mindful. Mindfulness represents the extent to which someone is focused on a moment in time and what is happening rather than daydreaming about something or somewhere else.
-contextual factors that potentially impact employee engagement. One clearly involves organizational culture. For example, employees are more likely to be engaged when an organization has a clan culture that promotes employee development, recognition, and trust between management and employees
Job security and feelings of psychological safety also propel employee engagement.
-Job security and feelings of psychological safety also propel employee engagement.
employee engagement is higher when people feel that they are being supported by both their direct supervisor and the company as a whole and when they have a line of sight with the organization's vision, strategies, and goals: Line of sight represents the extent to which employees understand how their jobs influence the achievement of broader strategic goals
employee engagement was significantly associated with organizational-level customer satisfaction/loyalty, profitability, productivity, turnover, and safety outcomes.a positive relationship between employee engagement and employees' performance and physical and psychological well-being, and corporate-level financial performance and customer satisfaction
represent an individual's perception about the terms and conditions of a reciprocal exchange between him- or herself and another party.
In a work environment, the psychological contract represents an employee's beliefs about what he or she is entitled to receive in return for what he or she provides to the organization.
an affective or emotional response toward various facets of one's job. This definition implies job satisfaction is not a unitary concept. Rather, a person can be relatively satisfied with one aspect of his or her job and dissatisfied with one or more other aspects.
Job Satisfaction Causes of
Need fulfillment - extent to which the characteristics of a job allow an individual to fulfill his or her needs
Discrepancies - satisfaction is a result of met expectations. Met expectations represent the difference between what an individual expects to receive from a job, such as good pay and promotional opportunities, and what he or she actually receives. When expectations are greater than what is received, a person will be dissatisfied. In contrast, this model predicts that an individual will be satisfied when he or she attains outcomes above and beyond expectations.
Value attainment - that satisfaction results from the perception that a job allows for fulfillment of an individual's important work values.
Equity - satisfaction is a function of how "fairly" an individual is treated at work. Satisfaction results from one's perception that work outcomes, relative to inputs, compare favorably with a significant other's outcomes/inputs.
Dispositional/Genetic Components - the belief that job satisfaction is partly a function of both personal traits and genetic factors. As such, this model implies that stable individual differences are just as important in explaining job satisfaction as are characteristics of the work environment. Dispositions had stronger relationships with intrinsic aspects of a job (e.g., having autonomy) than with extrinsic aspects of work (e.g., receipt of rewards). Genetic factors also were found to significantly predict life satisfaction, well-being, and general job satisfaction
Job Satisfaction - Correlates of
The relationship between job satisfaction and these other variables is either positive or negative. The strength of the relationship ranges from weak (very little relationship) to strong. Strong relationships imply that managers can significantly influence the variable of interest by increasing job satisfaction.
Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs)
consist of employee behaviors that are beyond the call of duty.
Examples include "such gestures as constructive statements about the department, expression of personal interest in the work of others, suggestions for improvement, training new people, respect for the spirit as well as the letter of housekeeping rules, care for organizational property, and punctuality and attendance well beyond standard or enforceable levels
encapsulate this thought process by representing an individual's overall thoughts and feelings about quitting
counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs)
types of behavior that harm employees, the organization as a whole, or organizational stakeholders such as customers and shareholder. Examples of CWBs include theft, gossiping, backstabbing, drug and alcohol abuse, destroying organizational property, violence, purposely doing bad or incorrect work, surfing the Net for personal use, excessive socializing, tardiness, sabotage, and sexual harassment.
discussing one's weaknesses or limitations
When teammates feel free to admit mistakes, ask for help, and acknowledge their own weaknesses, they reduce divisive politics and build a bond of trust more valuable than almost any strategic advantage
cognitive process that enables us to interpret and understand our surroundings
Recognition of objects is one of this process's major functions
The study of how people perceive one another has been labeled social cognition and social information processing.
The reciprocal process of perception
social cognition/social information processing
is the study of how people make sense of other people and themselves. It focuses on how ordinary people think about people and how they think they think about people.
Three of the stages in this model—selective attention/comprehension, encoding and simplification, and storage and retention—describe how specific information and environmental stimuli are observed and stored in memory. The fourth and final stage, retrieval and response, involves turning mental representations into real-world judgments and decisions.
Stage 1 - Attention - the process of becoming consciously aware of something or someone. Attention can be focused on information either from the environment or from memory.
Stage 2 - Encoding - raw information is interpreted or translated into mental representations. To accomplish this, perceivers assign pieces of information to cognitive categories. "By category we mean a number of objects that are considered equivalent. Categories are generally designated by names, e.g., dog, animal."
A schema represents a person's mental picture or summary of a particular event or type of stimulus.
Stage 3 - Storage and Retention - This phase involves storage of information in long-term memory. long-term memory is made up of three compartments (or wings) containing categories of information about events, semantic materials, and people.
Event Memory This compartment is composed of categories containing information about both specific and general events. These memories describe appropriate sequences of events in well-known situations, such as going to a restaurant , going on a job interview, going to a food store, or going to a movie.
Semantic Memory Semantic memory refers to general knowledge about the world. In so doing, it functions as a mental dictionary of concepts. Each concept contains a definition (e.g., a good leader) and associated traits (outgoing), emotional states (happy), physical characteristics (tall), and behaviors (works hard). Just as there are schemata for general events, concepts in semantic memory are stored as schemata.
Person Memory Categories within this compartment contain information about a single individual (your professor) or groups of people (professors). You are more likely to remember information about a person, event, or an advertisement if it contains characteristics that are similar to something stored in the compartments of memory.
Stage 4 - Retrieval and Response - People retrieve information from memory when they make judgments and decisions. Our ultimate judgments and decisions are either based on the process of drawing on, interpreting, and integrating categorical information stored in long-term memory or on retrieving a summary judgment that was already made.
Implicit cognition represents any thoughts or beliefs that are automatically activated from memory without our conscious awareness. The existence of implicit cognition leads people to make biased decisions without an understanding that it is occurring
Good leaders were perceived as exhibiting the following behaviors:
(1) assigning specific tasks to group members, (2) telling others that they had done well, (3) setting specific goals for the group, (4) letting other group members make decisions, (5) trying to get the group to work as a team, and (6) maintaining definite standards of performance. Another recent study found that good leaders were perceived as those who consistently treated all members of a work unit in a fair manner.
An individual's set of beliefs about the characteristics or attributes of a group
Not always negative
May or may not be accurate
Stereotyping is a four-step process.
1 - categorizing people into groups according to various criteria, such as gender, age, race, and occupation.
2 - we infer that all people within a particular category possess the same traits or characteristics (e.g., all women are nurturing, older people have more job-related accidents, all African 3 - we form expectations of others and interpret their behavior according to our stereotypes.
4 - stereotypes are maintained by (1) overestimating the frequency of stereotypic behaviors exhibited by others, (2) incorrectly explaining expected and unexpected behaviors, and (3) differentiating minority individuals from oneself.
is the belief that differing traits and abilities make men and women particularly well suited to different roles. These stereotypes have been found to influence our perceptions of women as leaders.
(1) people often prefer male bosses
(2) women have a harder time being perceived as an effective leader (e.g., women were seen as more effective than men only when the organization faced a crisis and turnaround)
(3) women of color are more negatively affected by sex-role stereotypes than white women or men in general
reinforce age discrimination because of their negative orientation.
Long-standing age stereotypes depict older workers as less satisfied, not as involved with their work, less motivated, not as committed
biased thoughts, attitudes, and feelings" that exist at an unconscious level
refers to the 'predicament' in which members of a social group (e.g., African Americans, women) 'must deal with the possibility of being judged or treated stereotypically, or of doing something that would confirm the stereotype
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: The Pygmalion Effect
that someone's high expectations for another person result in high performance for that person
The key process underlying both the Pygmalion and Galatea effects is the idea that people's expectations or beliefs determine their behavior and performance, thus serving to make their expectations come true. In other words, we strive to validate our perceptions of reality, no matter how faulty they may be. Thus, the self-fulfilling prophecy is an important perceptual outcome we need to better understand.
occurs when an individual's high self-expectations for him- or herself lead to high performance.
a loss in performance resulting from low leader expectations
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: The Pygmalion Effect - managers can create positive performance expectations.
Recognize that everyone has the potential to increase his or her performance.
Set high performance goals.
Positively reinforce employees for a job well done.
Provide frequent feedback that conveys a belief in employees' ability to complete their tasks.
Give employees the opportunity to experience increasingly challenging tasks and projects.
Communicate by using facial expressions, voice intonations, body language, and encouraging comments that reflect high expectations.
Provide employees with the input, information, and resources they need to achieve their goals.
Introduce new employees as if they have outstanding potential.
Encourage employees to stay focused on the present moment and not to worry about negative past events.
Help employees master key skills and tasks.
are suspected or inferred causes of behavior.
Generally speaking, people formulate causal attributions by considering the events preceding an observed behavior.
Kelley's Model of Attribution
Behavior can be attributed either to:
Internal factors within a person (such as ability) or:
External behavior within the environment (such as a difficult task)
*It is important to remember that consensus relates to other people, distinctiveness relates to other tasks, and consistency relates to time.
involves a comparison of an individual's behavior with that of his peers. There is high consensus when one acts like the rest of the group and low consensus when one acts differently.
involves comparing a person's behavior on one task with the behavior from other tasks. High distinctiveness means the individual has performed the task in question in a significantly different manner than he or she has performed other tasks. Low distinctiveness means stable performance or quality from one task to another.
determined by judging if the individual's performance on a given task is consistent over time.High consistency implies that a person performs a certain task the same, time after time. Unstable performance of a given task over time would mean low consistency.
Fundamental Attribution Bias
reflects one's tendency to attribute another person's behavior to his or her personal characteristics, as opposed to situational factors. This bias causes perceivers to ignore important environmental forces that often significantly affect behavior.
represents one's tendency to take more personal responsibility for success than for failure. The self-serving bias suggests employees will attribute their success to internal factors (high ability or hard work) and their failures to uncontrollable external factors (tough job, bad luck, unproductive co-workers, or an unsympathetic boss). This tendency plays out in all aspects of life.
psychological processes that cause the arousal, direction, and persistence of voluntary actions that are goal directed
Content theories of motivation focus on identifying internal factors such as instincts, needs, satisfaction, and job characteristics that energize employee motivation. These theories do not explain how motivation is influenced by the dynamic interaction between an individual and the environment in which he or she works. This limitation led to the creation of process theories of motivation.
Process theories of motivation focus on explaining the process by which internal factors and cognitions influence employee motivation.3 Process theories are more dynamic than content theories.
Needs are physiological or psychological deficiencies that arouse behavior. They can be strong or weak and are influenced by environmental factors. Thus, human needs vary over time and place. The general idea behind need theories of motivation is that unmet needs motivate people to satisfy them. Conversely, people are not motivated to pursue a satisfied need. Let us now consider four popular content theories of motivation: Maslow's need hierarchy theory, Alderfer's ERG theory, McClelland's need theory, and Herzberg's motivator-hygiene model.
Maslow's Need Hierarchy Theory
These needs are
Physiological. Most basic need. Entails having enough food, air, and water to survive.
Safety. Consists of the need to be safe from physical and psychological harm.
Love. The desire to be loved and to love. Contains the needs for affection and belonging.
Esteem. Need for reputation, prestige, and recognition from others. Also contains need for self-confidence and strength.
Self-actualization. Desire for self-fulfillment—to become the best one is capable of becoming.
two key managerial implications of Maslow's theory are worth noting. First, it is important for managers to focus on satisfying employee needs related to self concepts—self-esteem and self-actualization—because their satisfaction is significantly associated with a host of important outcomes such as academic achievement, physical illness, psychological well-being (e.g., anxiety disorders, depression), criminal convictions, drug abuse, marital satisfaction, money and work problems, and performance at work. Second, a satisfied need may lose its motivational potential. Therefore, managers are advised to motivate employees by devising programs or practices aimed at satisfying emerging or unmet needs.
Alderfer's ERG Theory
*existence needs (E)—the desire for physiological and materialistic well-being;
*relatedness needs (R)—the desire to have meaningful relationships with significant others;
*growth needs (G)—the desire to grow as a human being and to use one's abilities to their fullest potential
does not assume needs are related to each other in a stair-step hierarchy as does Maslow. Alderfer believes that more than one need may be activated at a time. Finally, ERG theory contains a frustration-regression component. That is, frustration of higher-order needs can influence the desire for lower-order needs
McClelland's Need Theory
*Need for achievement
Desire to accomplish something difficult.
Achievement-motivated people share three common characteristics: (1) they prefer working on tasks of moderate difficulty; (2) they prefer situations in which performance is due to their efforts rather than to other factors, such as luck; and (3) they desire more feedback on their successes and failures than do low achievers.
*Need for affiliation
prefer to spend more time maintaining social relationships, joining groups, and wanting to be loved. Individuals high in this need are not the most effective managers or leaders because they tend to avoid conflict, have a hard time making difficult decisions without worrying about being disliked, and avoid giving others negative feedback
*Need for power
Desire to Influence, coach, teach, or encourage others to achieve.
People with a high need for power like to work and are concerned with discipline and self-respect. There are positive and negative sides to this need. The negative face of power is characterized by an "if I win, you lose" mentality. In contrast, people with a positive orientation to power focus on accomplishing group goals and helping employees obtain the feeling of competence.
To accomplish something difficult. To master, manipulate, or organize physical objects, human beings, or ideas. To do this as rapidly and as independently as possible. To overcome obstacles and attain a high standard. To excel one's self. To rival and surpass others. To increase self-regard by the successful exercise of talent.
Herzberg's Motivator-Hygiene Model
Herzberg found separate and distinct clusters of factors associated with job satisfaction and dissatisfaction.
Job satisfaction was more frequently associated with achievement, recognition, characteristics of the work, responsibility, and advancement. These factors were all related to outcomes associated with the content of the task being performed. Herzberg labeled these factors motivators because each was associated with strong effort and good performance. He hypothesized that motivators cause a person to move from a state of no satisfaction to satisfaction
job dissatisfaction to be associated primarily with factors in the work context or environment. Specifically, company policy and administration, technical supervision, salary, interpersonal relations with one's supervisor, and working conditions were most frequently mentioned by employees expressing job dissatisfaction. Herzberg labeled this second cluster of factors hygiene factors. He further proposed that they were not motivational. At best, Herzberg proposed that individuals will experience no job dissatisfaction when he or she has no grievances about hygiene factors
Herzberg concludes that "the opposite of job satisfaction is not job dissatisfaction, but rather no job satisfaction; and similarly, the opposite of job dissatisfaction is not job satisfaction, but no dissatisfaction." Herzberg thus asserts that the dissatisfaction-satisfaction continuum contains a zero midpoint at which dissatisfaction and satisfaction are absent. Conceivably, an organization member who has good supervision, pay, and working conditions but a tedious and unchallenging task with little chance of advancement would be at the zero midpoint. That person would have no dissatisfaction (because of good hygiene factors) and no satisfaction (because of a lack of motivators).
Adams's Equity Theory of Motivation
a model of motivation that explains how people strive for fairness and justice in social exchanges or give-and-take relationships. As a process theory of motivation, equity theory explains how an individual's motivation to behave in a certain way is fueled by feelings of inequity or a lack of justice.
two primary components are involved in the employee-employer exchange, inputs and outcomes. An employee's inputs, for which he or she expects a just return, include education/training, skills, creativity, seniority, age, personality traits, effort expended, and personal appearance. On the outcome side of the exchange, the organization provides such things as pay/bonuses, medical benefits, challenging assignments, job security, promotions, status symbols, and participation in important decisions.
if the comparison person enjoys greater outcomes for similar inputs, negative inequity will be perceived . On the other hand, a person will experience positive inequity when his or her outcome to input ratio is greater than that of a relevant coworker. Interestingly, the current economy can create positive inequity for layoff survivors because they feel fortunate to still have a job.
reflects the perceived fairness of how resources and rewards are distributed or allocated
defined as the perceived fairness of the process and procedures used to make allocation decisions
relates to the "quality of the interpersonal treatment people receive when procedures are implemented." This form of justice does not pertain to the outcomes or procedures associated with decision making, but rather it focuses on whether or not people feel they are treated fairly when decisions are implemented. Fair interpersonal treatment necessitates that managers communicate truthfully and treat people with courtesy and respect.
Vroom's Expectancy Theory
Motivation boils down to the decision of how much effort to exert in a specific task situation. Generally, expectancy theory can be used to predict motivation and behavior in any situation in which a choice between two or more alternatives must be made. For instance, it can be used to predict whether to quit or stay at a job; whether to exert substantial or minimal effort at a task; and whether to major in management, finance, marketing, psychology, or communication.
represents an individual's belief that a particular degree of effort will be followed by a particular level of performance. The following factors influence an employee's expectancy perceptions:
Previous success at the task
Help received from a supervisor and subordinates
Information necessary to complete the task
Good materials and equipment to work with
A performance outcome perception. It represents a person's belief that a particular outcome is contingent on accomplishing a specific level of performance. Performance is instrumental when it leads to something else. For example, passing exams is instrumental to graduating from college.
the positive or negative value people place on outcomes. For example, most employees have a positive valence for receiving additional money or recognition. In contrast, job stress and being laid off would likely result in negative valence for most individuals. In Vroom's expectancy model, outcomes refer to different consequences that are contingent on performance, such as pay, promotions, or recognition. An outcome's valence depends on an individual's needs and can be measured for research purposes with scales ranging from a negative value to a positive value.
different consequences that are contingent on performance
what an individual is trying to accomplish; it is the object or aim of an action
-foster the development and application of task strategies and action plans
Goal Setting Practical Insights
Specific high goals lead to greater performance. Goal specificity pertains to the quantifiability of a goal. people demonstrated that performance was greater when people had specific high goals.50
Feedback enhances the effect of specific, difficult goals. Feedback plays a key role in all of our lives. Feedback lets people know if they are headed toward their goals or if they are off course and need to redirect their efforts. Goals plus feedback is the recommended approach. Goals inform people about performance standards and expectations so that they can channel their energies accordingly. In turn, feedback provides the information needed to adjust direction, effort, and strategies for goal accomplishment.
Participative goals, assigned goals, and self-set goals are equally effective. Both managers and researchers are interested in identifying the best way to set goals.
Action planning facilitates goal accomplishment. An action plan outlines the activities or tasks that need to be accomplished in order to obtain a goal. They can also include dates associated with completing each task, resources needed, and obstacles that must be overcome. Managers can use action plans as a vehicle to have performance discussions with employees, and employees can use them to monitor progress toward goal achievement. An action plan also serves as a cue to remind us of what we should be working on, which in turn was found to lead to goal-relevant behavior and success.
Goal commitment and monetary incentives affect goal-setting outcomes. Goal commitment is the extent to which an individual is personally committed to achieving a goal. In general, an individual is expected to persist in attempts to accomplish a goal when he or she is committed to it. Researchers believe that goal commitment moderates the relationship between the difficulty of a goal and performance. That is, difficult goals lead to higher performance only when employees are committed to their goals. Conversely, difficult goals are hypothesized to lead to lower performance when people are not committed to their goals.
also referred to as job redesign, "refers to any set of activities that involve the alteration of specific jobs or interdependent systems of jobs with the intent of improving the quality of employee job experience and their on the-job productivity
Job Design Top Down Approaches
management is responsible for creating efficient and meaningful combinations of work tasks for employees. If done correctly, the theory is that employees will display higher performance, job satisfaction, and employee engagement, and lower absenteeism and turnover. scientific management, job enlargement, job rotation, job enrichment, and the job characteristics model.
top-down approaches are constrained by the fact that managers cannot always create changes in task characteristics that are optimum for everyone.
that kind of management which conducts a business or affairs by standards established by facts or truths gained through systematic observation, experiment, or reasoning. The application of scientific management involves the following five steps: (1) develop standard methods for performing jobs by using time and motion studies, (2) carefully select employees with the appropriate abilities, (3) train workers to use the standard methods and procedures, (4) support workers and reduce interruptions, and (5) provide incentives to reinforce performance
Involves putting more variety into a worker's job by combining specialized tasks of comparable difficulty.
Some call this horizontally loading the job
moving employees from one specialized job to another
Job enrichment is the practical application of Frederick Herzberg's motivator-hygiene theory of job satisfaction
entails modifying a job such that an employee has the opportunity to experience achievement, recognition, stimulating work, responsibility, and advancement. These characteristics are incorporated into a job through vertical loading. Rather than giving employees additional tasks of similar difficulty (horizontal loading), vertical loading consists of giving workers more autonomy and responsibility. Intuit, for example, attempts to do this by "encouraging workers to take four hours a week of 'unstructured time' for their own projects and hosting 'idea jams,' where teams present new concepts for prizes
Job Characteristics Model
In general terms, core job dimensions are common characteristics found to a varying degree in all jobs. Three of the job characteristics shown combine to determine experienced meaningfulness of work:
Skill variety. The extent to which the job requires an individual to perform a variety of tasks that require him or her to use different skills and abilities.
Task identity. The extent to which the job requires an individual to perform a whole or completely identifiable piece of work. In other words, task identity is high when a person works on a product or project from beginning to end and sees a tangible result.
Task significance. The extent to which the job affects the lives of other people within or outside the organization.
Experienced responsibility is elicited by the job characteristic of autonomy, defined as follows:
Autonomy. The extent to which the job enables an individual to experience freedom, independence, and discretion in both scheduling and determining the procedures used in completing the job.
Finally, knowledge of results is fostered by the job characteristic of feedback, defined as follows:
Feedback. The extent to which an individual receives direct and clear information about how effectively he or she is performing the job.
occurs when an individual is "turned on to one's work because of the positive internal feelings that are generated by doing well, rather than being dependent on external factors (such as incentive pay or compliments from the boss) for the motivation to work effectively
this approach to job design is driven by employees rather than managers and is referred to as job crafting.
the physical and cognitive changes individuals make in the task or relational boundaries of their work
job crafting is limited by the amount of latitude people have in changing their own jobs.
Idiosyncratic Deals (I-Deals)
a middle ground between top-down and bottom-up methods and attempts to overcome their limitations
Idiosyncratic deals (i-deals) represent "employment terms individuals negotiate for themselves, taking myriad forms from flexible schedules to career development."72 Although "star performers" have long negotiated special employment contracts or deals, demographic trends and the changing nature of work have created increased opportunities for more employees to negotiate i-deals.
I-deals tend to involve personal flexibility, developmental needs, and task-related content. The goal of such deals is to increase employee motivation and productivity by allowing employees the flexibility to negotiate employment relationships that meet their needs and values.
Only 1 out of 100 managers provides every direct report with these five basics every day:
Performance requirements and standard operating procedures related to tasks and responsibilities.
Defined parameters, measurable goals, and concrete deadlines for all work assignments for which the direct report will be held accountable.
Accurate monitoring, evaluation, and documentation of work performance.
Specific feedback on work performance with guidance for improvement.
Fairly distributed rewards and detriments [penalties].
an organization-wide system whereby managers integrate the activities of goal setting, monitoring and evaluating, providing feedback and coaching, and rewarding employees on a continuous basis
Organizational behavior (OB) can shed valuable light on key aspects of performance management—namely, goal setting, feedback and coaching, and rewards and positive reinforcement.
First, people with the requisite abilities, skills, and job knowledge need to be hired.
-Never compromise on hiring.
-Nothing demotivates people like the equal treatment of unequals.
Next, training is required to correct any job knowledge shortfalls
Employees with a clear line of sight
understand the organization's strategic goals and know what actions they need to take, both individually and as team members.
Performance Outcome Goal
targets a specific end result
But for employees who lack the necessary skills, performance outcome goals are more frustrating than motivating. When skills are lacking, a developmental process is needed wherein learning goals precede performance outcome goals.
strives to improve creativity and develop skills
When skills are lacking, a developmental process is needed wherein learning goals precede performance outcome goals.
Management by Objectives
a management system that incorporates participation into decision making, goal setting, and objective feedback. The central idea of MBO, getting individual employees to "own" a piece of a collective effort
Managing the Goal-Setting Process - Step 1: Set Goals
SMART is an acronym for specific, measurable, attainable, results oriented, and time bound.
There are two additional recommendations for Step 1. First, for complex tasks, employees need to be trained in problem-solving techniques and developing performance action plans. An action plan specifies the strategies or tactics necessary to accomplish a goal.
Second, because of individual differences, it may be necessary to establish different goals for employees performing the same job.
An individual's goal orientation is another important individual difference to consider when setting goals. Three types of goal orientations are a learning goal orientation, a performance-prove goal orientation, and a performance-avoid goal orientation. People with a high learning goal orientation view skills as malleable. They make efforts not only to achieve current tasks but also to develop the ability to accomplish future tasks. People with a high performance-prove goal orientation tend to focus on performance and try to demonstrate their ability by looking better than others. People with a high performance-avoid goal orientation also focus on performance, but this focus is grounded in trying to avoid negative outcomes.
Managing the Goal-Setting Process - Step 2: Promote Goal Commitment
Goal commitment can be enhanced by following these guidelines:
Explain why the organization is committed to a comprehensive goal-setting program.
Create clear lines of sight by clarifying the corporate goals and linking the individual's goals to them. "The task of leaders is to simplify.".
Let employees participate in setting their own goals and creating their own action plans. Encourage them to set challenging "stretch" goals. Goals should be difficult, but not impossible.24
Foster personal growth by having employees build goal ladders, chains of progressively more difficult and challenging goals.
Specifically, focusing on completed goals in the ladder promotes a feeling of satisfaction. Focusing on remaining goals in the ladder tends to motivate a higher level of achievement. High achievers are good at strategically alternating their focus on what has been accomplished (for a feeling of satisfaction) and their focus on the challenges ahead (for motivation to work harder)
Managing the Goal-Setting Process - Step 3: Provide Support and Feedback
Practical guidelines include the following:
Make sure each employee has the necessary skills and information to reach his or her goals. As a pair of goal-setting experts succinctly stated, "Motivation without knowledge is useless."26 Training often is required to help employees achieve difficult goals and build goal ladders.
Pay attention to employees' effort→performance expectations, perceived self-efficacy, and reward preferences and adjust accordingly.
Be supportive and helpful. Empower employees as they grow. Do not use goals as a threat.
Give employees timely and task-specific feedback (knowledge of results) about what they are doing right and wrong.
Provide monetary and nonmonetary incentives and reward both significant progress and goal accomplishment.
objective information about individual or collective performance.
Subjective assessments such as "You're doing a poor job," "You're lazy," or "We really appreciate everyone's hard work" do not qualify as objective feedback. But hard data such as units sold, days absent, dollars saved, projects completed, customers satisfied, and quality rejects are all candidates for objective feedback programs.
Managers can enhance their credibility as sources of feedback by developing their expertise and creating a climate of trust.
Negative feedback is typically misperceived or rejected
Recipients of feedback perceive it to be more accurate when they actively participate in the feedback session versus passively receiving feedback
feedback serves two functions for those who receive it: one is instructional and the other motivational. Feedback instructs when it clarifies roles or teaches new behavior.
Feedback Practical Lessons
The acceptance of feedback should not be treated as a given; it is often misperceived or rejected. This is especially true in intercultural situations.
Managers can enhance their credibility as sources of feedback by developing their expertise and creating a climate of trust.
Negative feedback is typically misperceived or rejected.
Although very frequent feedback may erode one's sense of personal control and initiative, feedback is too infrequent in most work organizations. Feedback needs to be tailored to the recipient.
While average and below-average performers need extrinsic rewards for performance, high performers respond to feedback that enhances their feelings of competence and personal control.45
More recent research insights about feedback include the following:
Computer-based performance feedback leads to greater improvements in performance when it is received directly from the computer system rather than via an immediate supervisor.46
Recipients of feedback perceive it to be more accurate when they actively participate in the feedback session versus passively receiving feedback.47
Destructive criticism tends to cause conflict and reduce motivation.48
"The higher one rises in an organization the less likely one is to receive quality feedback about job performance
Feedback Trouble Signs
involves letting individuals compare their own perceived performance with behaviorally specific (and usually anonymous) performance information from their manager, subordinates, and peers. Even outsiders may be involved in what is sometimes called full-circle feedback.
Top management support and an organizational climate of openness can help 360-degree feedback programs succeed.
Trust is at the core of using 360-degree feedback to enhance productivity. Trust determines how much an individual is willing to contribute for an employer. Using 360 confidentially, for developmental purposes, builds trust; using it to trigger pay and personnel decisions puts trust at risk.
Feedback for Coaching Purposes and Organizational Effectiveness
Focus on performance, not personalities.
Give specific feedback linked to learning goals and performance outcome goals.
Channel feedback toward key result areas for the organization.
Give feedback as soon as possible.
Give feedback to coach improvement, not just for final results.
Base feedback on accurate and credible information.
Pair feedback with clear expectations for improvement.
Organizational Reward Systems
Financial, material, and social rewards qualify as extrinsic rewards because they come from the environment.
An employee who works to obtain extrinsic rewards, such as money or praise, is said to be extrinsically motivated.
Psychic rewards, however, are intrinsic rewards because they are self-granted.
One who derives pleasure from the task itself or experiences a sense of competence or self-determination is said to be intrinsically motivated
Reward Distribution Criteria
three general criteria for the distribution of rewards are as follows:
Performance: results. Tangible outcomes such as individual, group, or organization performance; quantity and quality of performance.
Performance: actions and behaviors. Such as teamwork, cooperation, risk taking, creativity.
Nonperformance considerations. Customary or contractual, where the type of job, nature of the work, equity, tenure, level in hierarchy, and so forth are rewarded.
Thomas's Building Blocks for Intrinsic Rewards and Motivation
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