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Children often learn to associate pushing a vending machine button with the delivery of a candy bar. This best illustrates the process underlying

operant conditioning

In classical conditioning, generalization refers to the tendency for the conditioned response to be evoked by stimuli that are similar to the

conditioned stimulus

The loudness of sounds is determined by the " " of the sound waves.


The sense of touch includes the four basic sensations of

pressure, pain, warmth, and cold

The organizational rules identified by Gestalt psychologists illustrate that

the perceived whole differs from the sum of its parts

Watson and Rayner's study of Little Albert demonstrated how specific fears

may be produced through classical conditioning

Psychologists define learning as

a relatively permanent change in behaviors due to experience

Retinal disparity refers to the

somewhat different images our two eyes receive of the same object

A child's learned fear at the sight of a hypodermic needle in a(n)

conditioned response

Sensory restriction is much more likely to hinder visual development in early infancy than during other times of life. This suggests that here is a(n) " " for normal visual development

critical period

After he was spanked on several occasions for spilling his milk at restaurant, Colin became afraid to go to the restaurant. In this case, spanking was a(n) " " for Colin's fear.

unconditioned stimulus

Perceiving objects as unchanging even as illumination and retinal images is known as

perceptual constancy

A dog salivates to the sound of a tone because the tone has regularly been associated with the delivery of food. In this case, the tone is called a(n)

conditioned stimulus

Cones and rods are to vision as " " are to audition.

hair cells

Because of the discomfort and embarrassment associated with his childhood bed-wetting, Andrew becomes nervous whenever he senses an urge to urinate. If genital arousal subsequently make Andrew unusually anxious, this would best illustrate


Makayla developed an intense fear of flying five years ago when she was in a plane crash. The fact that today she can again fly without distress indicates that her fear has undergone


If a sea slug on repeated occasions receives an electric shock just after being squirted with water, its protective withdrawal response to a squirt of water grows stronger. This best illustrates

associative learning

Perception is the process by which

sensory input is organized and interpreted

The classic gate-control theory suggests that pain is experienced when small nerve fibers activate and open a neural gate in the

spinal cord

Garcia and Koelling's studies of taste aversion in rats demonstrated that classical conditioning is constrained by

biological predispositions

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