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27 terms

Archaeology final pt 2

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Matrilineal descent
A unilineal descent system in which ancestry is traced through the female line.
Matrilocal residence
A cultural practice in which a newly married couple live with the wife's
mother's family.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)
Genetic material found in the mitochondria of cells that is inherited
from the mother.
Mortality profiles
Charts that depict the various ages of death of a burial population.
Neolocal residence
A cultural practice in which a newly married couple establishes their own
household separate from that of both the groom's and wife's family
Oasis theory
The idea that animal domestication arose as people, plants, and animals congregated
around water sources during the arid period that followed the Pleistocene.
Osteoarthritis
A disorder in which cartilage between joints wears away, often because of overuse
of the joints, resulting in osteophytes and eburnation.
Paleopathology
The study of ancient patterns of disease, disorders, and trauma.
Patralineal descent
A unilineal descent system in which ancestry is traced through the male line.
Patrilocal residence
A cultural practice in which a newly married couple live with the groom's
father's family.
Political organization
A society's formal and informal institutions that regulate a population's
collective acts.
Population pressure
The result of a population reaching carrying capacity
Porotic hyperostosis
A Symptom on iron deficiency anemia in which the skull takes on a porus
appearance.
Ranked society
A society in which there is unequal access to the higher status categories; many
people who are qualified for high status positions are unable to attain them.
Seasonality
An estimate of when during the year a particular site was occupied.
Settlement pattern
The distribution of archaeological sites across a region.
Settlement system
The movement and activities reconstructed from a settlement pattern.
Shoshone
The American Indian people who inhabited much of the Great Basin during both historic
and late prehistoric times.
Social organization
The rules and structures that govern relations within a group of interacting
people.
Social status
The rights, duties, privileges, powers, and liabilities that relate to a recognized and
named social position.
State
A centralized political system found in complex societies, characterized by having the virtual
monopoly on the power to coerce.
Subsistence pattern
What people ate at a particular time and place in the past
Taphonomy
The study of the processes that operate on organic remains after death to form
archaeological deposits.
Tool kit
A spatially or functionally patterned combination of artifacts that were used for one or
more specific tasks.
Tribal societies
A wide range of social formations that lie between egalitarian foragers and ranked
societies (such as chiefdoms).
Unilineal Cultural evolution
The idea that human societies have evolved along a single
developmental trajectory. Typically, such schemes depict Western civilization as the most
advanced evolutionary stage; anthropology rejects this idea.
X-ray fluorescence (XRF)
One of several techniques to identify the chemical composition of
obsidian and other raw materials.