5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- What made multilateralism so favourable to China by 2001?
- How does Liberalism reject the international view of Realism?
- Why was the Zangger Committee formed?
- In regards to arms control, what was accomplished in the Clinton administration?
- Japan has long been established as a great power in the world, but has recently been rising as well. In what ways has it been rising to its already established great power-hood?
- a a. Little was.
i. Clinton and Yeltsin agreed to retarget nuclear missiles on open areas of the ocean, rather than on targets in Russia and the US, so as to avoid a horrible catastrophe in case of an accident.
ii. The US-Russian Joint Data Exchange Center in Moscow
1. To prevent false alarms, misjudgements, and accidents as Russia's ballistic missile early warning system slowly decayed. It should be noted however that this measure has still not come into effect. This is perhaps because Russia withdrew from support of this program.
iii. START III was attempted but quickly failed.
- b --a) It didn't have to commit itself to a security community or a particular vision for regional identity. It just had to follow (or shape in its own image) the loose guidelines for regional integration set up by the ASEAN way.
b) Cooperation was centred on economic ties between countries and avoided sovereignty disputes.
c) It gave China a leading role in diplomacy in the region, particularly regarding the Six Party Talks over the future of N. Korea.
d) It also gave China to benefit from divisions among its allies
- c Liberals think that realists have a stunted vision that cannot include improvements in relations between states. But, they argue that if we apply the principles of Liberalism, there a possible way out from the anarchic world.
- d a. It was formed to extend the NPT's requirements to the exporting practices of countries. It did so by creating "trigger lists." These were lists of materials that could be used to create a nuclear weapons program. Any item on the "trigger list" that was being exported would require the NPT safeguards to be applied to the recipient facility.
- e -- Japanese officials now discuss the potential utility of power projection forces, although Tokyo has not yet begun to pursue such weapons systems. More to the point, Tokyo is becoming more geopolitically active, and they are aggressively seeking a permanent seat on the UNSC
5 Multiple choice questions
- "International change results from the work of intellectual entrepreneurs". On the one hand, intellectual entrepreneurs attempt to convert people to new ideas. On the other hand, they condemn actors whose behaviour is different from standards. (Importance of transnational activist networks)
- • stronger institutionalism
• spread of democracy
• agreement on a status quo amongst the great powers
• China fails to develop into a dominant power instead becoming a regional power that is perceived as benign by its neighbours
• the US remains significantly engaged in Asia as the holder of the ring
- • balancing power falls to China alone thus little desire for security regimes such as ASEAN to play a more central role
• projects nuclear non-proliferation in a strong way
• cultivates Japan as a military dependant
• traditionally opposed Asian multilateral security initiatives.
- -- The international structure provides states with little incentive to seek additional increments of power; instead it pushes them to maintain the existing balance of power. Preserving power, rather than increasing it, is the main goal of states. (Mearsheimer)
-- In anarchy, security is the highest end. Only if survival is assured can states safely seek such other goals as tranquillity, profit and power. The first concern of states is not to maximise power but to maintain their positions in the system (Waltz)
-- Defensive realists contend that the primary goals that states seek to achieve are survival and security. Therefore, power is a tool for achieving the goal of security, and not a goal in itself.
- Whereas liberalists account on the power of int'l economics and democracy, constructivists think that the power comes from individuals and groups who debate about ideas and convince others to follow them. In addition, constructivists consider that their theory explain the origins of the forces driving the forces of the two other theories.
5 True/False questions
What bedrock assumptions do all forms of realism have in common? What assumptions distinguish them from one another? → a. It is very flexible and thus would have a high success rate—in so far as success can be measured by willingness to enter into agreements and cooperate with one another.
b. It is highly unpredictable, as there are as of yet neither safeguards, nor any concrete obligations. Such unpredictability will ultimately cause each party to act more cautiously about reductions than they would have under a more traditional regime of arms control.
How can arms control during the Cold War be divided into two phases? → a. Bounding, or setting limits, on existing nuclear arsenals. i. This stopped the spread of nuclear weapons to other countries, making the nuclear balance—particularly between the superpowers—more manageable.
b. Reducing strategic inventories and delivery systems. i. The next step. After limiting the number of nuclear states to the existing five (UK, France, US, USSR, and China), the issue turned to limiting the arsenals of the nuclear 5, but mainly the US and USSR.
Why do optimists view the increased number of nuclear states in direct proportion to stability? What is the pessimistic counter-argument? → Optimists think that states will have to learn to live with other emerging nuclear weapon states. The uncertainty over the reaction of other parties will make all states hesitant to strike individually.
Pessimists, however, think that a pre-emptive strike is still possible. Also the destabilization by pre-empting the emergence of nuclear weapon capabilities in the 3rd World might occur.
What two paths did the US take regarding its weapons policy in the aftermath of WWII? → --Chinese writings about regionalism described a gradual process with signs of multipolarity and cultural heterogeneity under a framework of political deference to ASEAN.
What were the arms control agreements and treaties Nixon was able to make with Brezhnev? → - Increased complexity of political landscape
- Tension and arms race in certain regions increased.
- WMD proliferation to rouge nations and groups
- 1990s climax of arms control
- Setback by Bush's emphasis on unilateral approach to security