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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. How has the US discouraged Asia from achieving its own independent security measures?
  2. What are the problems that pessimism has traditionally suffered from?
  3. What are the effects of this dichotomy of values?
  4. What is Solingen's thesis?
  5. What is asymmetric information and how does it affect relations between states?
  1. a • balancing power falls to China alone thus little desire for security regimes such as ASEAN to play a more central role
    • projects nuclear non-proliferation in a strong way
    • cultivates Japan as a military dependant
    • traditionally opposed Asian multilateral security initiatives.
  2. b The crucial explanatory variable for her is the domestic political survival model preferred by the ruling coalition. Solingen distinguishes between outward-looking regimes that derive domestic legitimacy from ensuring economic growth through global integration and inward-oriented ones that employ import-substituting models favouring extreme nationalism and autarky. Different orientations toward the global political economy and its associated economic, political, and security institutions, she argues, have direct implications for the nuclear choices that are taken.
  3. c Deductive logic: History is used for illustration rather than theory building.
    Ethnocentric bias: 3rd World country leaders are seen as less responsible and more prone to use nuclear weapons.
  4. d -- Information is asymmetric or incomplete when different actors know or believe different things about a situation.
    -- The problem of asymmetric information manifests itself in two general areas - (1) difficulties in assessing the relative power of various states, and (2) difficulties in discerning the preferences of states.
    -- These asymmetries typically take the form of uncertainty about states' goals or capabilities.
  5. e --a) It distorts the cultural diversity of Asia.
    b) It denies the appeal of universal values in the region.
    c) It blurs the line between socialism and Confucianism in Chinese values, and ignores the strong resistance across East Asia to China's civilizational arguments.

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. -- Moscow would like the region under its sphere of influence.
    -- The prospects of a twenty-first century " Great Game" between Beijing and Moscow for influence in Central Asia, plus other historical avenues of mistrust and the fact that both Beijing and Moscow value good relations with Washington at least as much as they do with one another, provides limits to the utility of this strategic partnership.
  2. Originally, the Chinese were worried that a collapse of the US-Japan Alliance would bring a re-armed and possibly aggressive Japan into the world. When the alliance recovered, Chinese analysts were relieved. Soon they were worried that the Americans were encouraging the Japanese to develop new military capabilities and technologies. The Chinese either see the alliance as a bottle cap—keeping Japan down—or an eggshell—protecting Japan while it rearms.
  3. Cold War logic is applicable to new proliferant countries, i.e. 3rd World leaders are rational actors who fear 2nd strike retaliation.
    Deliberate wars are less likely to occur. However, accidental wars are more likely to occur. (The latter is not part of optimistic proliferation.)
  4. -- His definition is it's a system of international relations organized around a central, dominant power that involves shared expectations of rights and responsibilities for both the dominant and secondary powers
  5. Challenge 1: International Institutions cannot stop superpowers. (Example: the US invaded Iraq in 2003 despite the opposition at the UN)
    Challenge 2: Even if democracies never fight each other, they fight eventually authoritarian regimes "to make the world safe for democracy".
    Challenge 3: Sometimes, countries fail their transitions to democracy and get into war; because, they have weak political institutions.

5 True/False questions

  1. What were the main criticisms of the Moscow Treaty?-- Global hegemony is virtually impossible, except for a state that has acquired "clear cut nuclear superiority," defined as "a capability to devastate its rivals without fear of retaliation"
    -- Regional hegemony - A hegemon is the only great power in its system. Thus, if a region contains more than one great power, there is no hegemon. The United State is the only regional hegemon in modern history, through its domination of the western hemisphere.
    -- Potential hegemon is the most powerful state in a regional system, but it is more than that. It is so powerful that it stands a good chance of dominating its region by overcoming its great power neighbours, if not all together, at least in sequence. There is a "marked gap" between the size of its economy and army, and that of the second most powerful state in the system. They always aspire to be hegemons, and they will not stop increasing their power until they succeed.

          

  2. What are the two types of multipolar systems? Why are they more prone to war than a bipolar system?a. More states than ever are interested in nuclear weapons;
    b. The US and Russia have abandoned strategic nuclear arms control and have begun to dismantle their arms control accomplishments.

          

  3. What are the different classes of hegemony?-- Global hegemony is virtually impossible, except for a state that has acquired "clear cut nuclear superiority," defined as "a capability to devastate its rivals without fear of retaliation"
    -- Regional hegemony - A hegemon is the only great power in its system. Thus, if a region contains more than one great power, there is no hegemon. The United State is the only regional hegemon in modern history, through its domination of the western hemisphere.
    -- Potential hegemon is the most powerful state in a regional system, but it is more than that. It is so powerful that it stands a good chance of dominating its region by overcoming its great power neighbours, if not all together, at least in sequence. There is a "marked gap" between the size of its economy and army, and that of the second most powerful state in the system. They always aspire to be hegemons, and they will not stop increasing their power until they succeed.

          

  4. What problems do emerging nuclear powers in the Third World particularly face according to proliferation pessimists?could draw the US in ( constructing China as a global rival) or push the US out (fear of engagement in Asian wars)

          

  5. What were Eastern values as espoused by Chinese theorists in 2009-10?-- They were a heralding of a Confucianism that was rephrased in support of continuity with communism. These rephrasing worked around the differences between the peaceful nature of the East in the past under China's benevolent tribute system, and the bellicose nature of the imperialistic West.