5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- What is Cossa's assessment of The US's strategy towards China?
- What transformations did disarmament undergo in the 20th century?
- What is the main concern about Japan developing a TMD? Why would the establishment of a TMD in Japan be considered an offensive manoeuvre?
- What challenges does the post 9-11 world present to Realism? How does Realism attempt to address these challenges?
- In light of the failure of the Baruch plan, what steps were made towards disarmament?
- a Challenge 1: The importance of non-state actors
Difficulties to explain why the U.S. declared a war against a terrorist organization (al Qaeda)
Responses of Realists:
- The "war on terror" has been fought against Afghanistan and Iraq, not non-state actors.
- The behaviour and motivations of non-state actors can be a strategy to expel powerful states of their homelands
Challenge 2: The balance of power
Weaker states are supposed to form an alliance against the stronger state and recreate a balance of power. However, after the cold war the U.S. are the only superpower in the world.
Responses of Realists:
- The US don't represent a danger because, the country is geographically far from other countries and its intentions are nonthreatening.
- Moreover, some scholars consider that resistance in Afghanistan and Iraq constitutes the emergence of a counter-power against the U.S.
- b a. The radical Baruch plan was changed for more moderate, noncontroversial methods of arms control such as the Nuclear Weapons Free Zones and the Limited Test Ban Treaty. These were successful because of their non-controversiality, but in part from this they did not contribute much to arms control.
- c a. Up until the 19th century, disarmament was sporadic at best, and usually a tool of the victors over the vanquished. The horrors of the world wars brought major voices in nations to call for the literal disarmament of every nation. These attempts were futile, but they didn't stop, and distinguished advocates have been persistent in this regard to the present day (search on the internet for Global Zero). Despite the dedication for total disarmament, and in light of the failure to eliminate or internationalize nuclear weapons (remember the Baruch plan of last semester), there was also a movement to control arms and mitigate the catastrophic consequences of their effect in the case they would be used.
b. The point is that in the 20th century disarmament split into the two camps of disarmament and arms control. They did not work against each other or with each other, but independently of one another, achieving separate goals to the same effect—namely, security and peace.
c. Another noteworthy change was that the new branch of arms control dealt explicitly and virtually exclusively with the spread of nuclear information and technology and mitigation of the use and effects of nuclear weapons.
- d -- U.S strategy toward a rising China seems based on the premise that China can, and wants to, play a constructive role in the emerging new world order.
- e A Japanese TMD worries the Chinese because it would weaken their ballistic missile deterrent against the home islands. This means that Japan would be less likely to fear China. If the TMD was ship-based, the Chinese would be even more worried because these assets could be used to safeguard Taiwan—perhaps even play a role in encouraging the island to make a bid for independence
5 Multiple choice questions
- -- Information is asymmetric or incomplete when different actors know or believe different things about a situation.
-- The problem of asymmetric information manifests itself in two general areas - (1) difficulties in assessing the relative power of various states, and (2) difficulties in discerning the preferences of states.
-- These asymmetries typically take the form of uncertainty about states' goals or capabilities.
- a. They passed created an agreement in which all signatories are required to implement full-scope safeguards as a condition nuclear supply to non-nuclear states;
b. Nuclear dual-use equipment, material, and technology was better regulated.
- • forced to see itself as part of a bigger security picture, no longer confined just to SE Asia
• wants to engage China openly in a more 'pacific/global' context through the ARF (ASEAN regional forum)
- • Europe did not suffer from the recent trauma of colonization and decolonization by outsiders
• the contemporary powers in Asia are boxed in by one superpower and two other great powers
• more globally connected than the European concert of powers
• 2 big differences: 1. nuclear deterrent 2. an outside superpower prepared to hold the ring for regional security.
• much bigger than Europe; geography matters
- Realism was able to explain correctly the situation of the post-9/11 world. Indeed, according to realists the military response of the U.S. to terrorist attacks is understandable. "When a state grows vastly more powerful than any opponent, realists expect that it will eventually use that power to expand its sphere of domination, whether for security, wealth, or other motives."
5 True/False questions
When looking at the behaviour of China and the "lesser" states in Asia, what should we keep in mind when deciding if states' behaviours in the region tend towards hierarchy or a more Westphalian model? → -- Discerning what actions China takes towards its neighbours.
-- Focus on the strategies that other nations take to adjust to China's rise.
-- A hierarchic theoretical approach will focus empirical scrutiny on the domestic aspects of China's rise.
According to Buzan, how have these concerns panned out since the 90's? → • high probability of classic power politics emerging from Asia in the next few decades
• focus on economic advancement
• possibility of war is a given in the region
Why was the Zangger Committee formed? → a. It was formed to extend the NPT's requirements to the exporting practices of countries. It did so by creating "trigger lists." These were lists of materials that could be used to create a nuclear weapons program. Any item on the "trigger list" that was being exported would require the NPT safeguards to be applied to the recipient facility.
What role did Japan play in the economic interdependence of East Asia? → • "flying geese" model: Japan set up a hierarchy of finance, production, and technology spreading out from Japan to the countries of E. Asia.
• created concentric circles of investment throughout Asia
• unique form of regionalism largely based on private capital and no international political institutionalization
How does Mearsheimer defend states' desires for evermore power, especially given Waltz's critique (as seen above in question number 4)? → Based on on-going cost benefit calculations by the ruling coalition, because of the importance she attaches to regional dynamics and nuclear neighbourhoods. A widely subscribed to non-proliferation norm in the region may have a reinforcing effect on the nuclear calculus of individual states. Likewise, regional predominance of inward-looking models and a propensity for nuclear weapons adventurism may lead states that, for political and economic reasons, would have preferred nuclear weapons abstinence to tilt toward the regional centre of (proliferation) gravity. Thus, a state with an outward-looking ruling coalition may pursue nuclear weapons should these outward-oriented elites perceive extreme external threats and calculate that the political benefits of economic integration and nu-clear restraint no longer outweigh those of going nuclear.