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125 terms

Chemistry Final Review

STUDY
PLAY
What is the study of the mass relationships among reactants and products in a chemical reaction?
Reaction stoichiometry
What is the maximum possible amount of product obtained in a chemical reaction?
Theoretical yield
If the temperature remains constant, V and P represent the original volume and pressure, and V' and P' represent the new volume and pressure, what is the mathematical expression for Boyle's law?
VP=V'P'
The principle that under similar pressures and temperatures, equal volumes of gases contain the same number of molecules is attributed to
Avogadro
Standard pressure is exactly
1 atm
To balance a chemical equation, it may be necessary to adjust the
coefficients
What is the measured amount of a product obtained from a chemical reaction?
Actual yield
A balanced chemical equation allows one to determine the
mole ratio of any two substances in the reaction
The units of molar mass are
g/mol
Which process can be explained by the kinetic-molecular theory?
Condensation
Which best describes the particles of a liquid compared to those of a gas?
Less random
If one knows the mass and molar mass of reactant A and the molar mass of product D in a chemical reaction, one can determine the mass of product D produced by using the
mole ratio of D to A from the chemical equation.
Which of the following would be investigated in reaction stoichiometry?
The mass of potassium required to produce a known mass of potassium chloride.
V is the original volume, V' is the new volume, T is the original Kelvin temperature and T' is the new Kelvin temperature. How is Charle's law expressed mathematically?
V=(V'T/T')
When the limiting reactant in a chemical reaction is completely used up, the
reaction stops
In what kind of reaction do two or more substances combine to form a new compound?
Synthesis reaction
A chemical reaction involving substances A and B stops when B is completed used. B is the
limiting reactant.
Why does the air pressure inside the tires of a car increase when the car is driven?
The air particles inside the tires increase their speed because their temperature rises.
Which of the following is not correct about crystalline solids?
They are geometrically irregular.
The rate of diffusion in solids is very low because the
particles are not free to move about
According to the kinetic-molecular theory, which substances are made of particles?
all matter
A volatile liquid
evaporates readily
If one knows the mole ratio of a reactant and product in a chemical reaction, one can
calculate the mass of the product produced from a known mass of reactant
The energy of the particles in a solid is
lower than the energy of the particles in liquids and gasses
Which reactant controls the amount of product formed in a chemical reaction?
Limiting reactant
Each of the four types of reaction stoichiometry problems requiers using a
mole ratio
What is the process by which molecules of a gas randomly encounter and pass through a small opening in a container?
effusion
A chemist interested in the efficiency of a chemical reaction would calculate the
percentage yield
By which process do gases take the shape of their container?
Expansion
Why would a camper near the top of Mount Everest find that water boils at less than 100 degrees?
Because there is less atmospheric pressure than at sea level.
An idea gas is a hypothetical gas
That conforms to all of the assumptions of the kinetic theory.
Why could the pressure of a sample of gas at a constant volume fall 75mm Hg?
The temperature decreased.
If the temperature of a fixed quantity and volume of gas changes, what also changes?
Pressure
Particles within a solid
Vibrate about fixed positions
After calculating the amount of reactant B required to completely react with A, then comparing that amount with the amount of B available, one can determine the
limiting reactant
the standard molar volume of a gas is all of the following except
dependent upon the size of the molecules.
To correct for the partial pressure of water vapor in a gas collection bottle, the vapor pressure of water at the collecting temperature is generally
subtracted from atmospheric pressure
To determine the limiting reactant in a chemical reaction, one must know the
available amount of each reactant
A chemical equation is balanced when the
same number of each kind of atom appears in the reactants and in the products
If the temperature of a fixed quantity and volume of gas changes, what alos changes?
Pressure
According to the kinetic-molecular theory, particles of matter are in motion in
solids, liquids, and gases
If the temperature of a liquid-vapor system at equilibrium is reduced, the
concentration of the vapor will decrease
Which of the following is a crystalline solid?
A quartz rock
What is the SI unit of force?
Newton
What determines the average kinetic energy of the molecules of any gas?
Temperature
The coefficients in a chemical equation represent the
relative number of moles of reactants and products
Two gases with unequal molar masses are injected into opposite ends of a long tube at the same time and allowed to diffuse toward the center. They should begin to mix closer to the end that
holds the heavier gas.
If the temperature of a container of gas remains constant, how could the pressure of the gas increase?
The number of gas molecules in the container increases.
Standard temperature is exactly
zero degrees
What is the ratio of the actual yield to the theoretical yield, multiplied by 100%?
percentage yield
At about what temperature does water reach its maximum density?
4 degrees
Forces holding particles together are strongest in a
solid
Suppose that two gases with unequal molar masses were injected into opposite ends of a long tube at the same time and allowed to diffuse toward the center. They should begin to mix
closer to the end that holds the heavier gas
The density of a substance undergoes the greatest change when the substance changes from a
liquid to a gas
Pressure is the force per unit
surface area
Which of the following is an amorphous solid?
Glass
What is the process by which molecules of a gas randomly encounter and pass through a small opening in a container?
Effusion
The kinetic-molecular theory explains the properties of solids, liquids, and gases in terms of the energy of the particles and
forces that act between the particles
If a gas with an odor is released in a room, it can quickly be detected across the room because it
Diffuses
Volumes of gaseous reactants and products in a chemical reaction can be expressed as ratios of small whole numbers
if constant temperatures and pressure are maintained
Who developed the concept that the total pressure of a mixture of gases is the sum of their partial pressures?
Dalton
Which of the following causes particles in a liquid to escape into a gas state?
High kinetic energy
A foam is a colloidal dispersion of
a gas and a liquid
When titrating a strong acid with a strong base, the equivalence point will be
at PH 7
Which of the following is an electrolyte?
Sodium chloride
As temperature increases, solubility of solids in liquids
Usually increases
In the expression "like dissolevs like" the world like refers to similarity in molecular
polarity
Solubilities, expressed as grams/100g of water,
must be determined experimentally
What unknown quantity can be calculated after performing a titration?
Concentration
A substance whose water solution is a good conductor of electricity is a
electrolyte
Enthalpy of solution is generally expressed in
kilojoules per mole of solute at a specified temperature
A substance whose water solution is a poor conductor of electricity is a
non electrolyte
Two immiscible substances
Will not form a solution
What is the approximate freezing point depression of nonvolatile aqueous electrolyte solutions?
-1.86C/m X total molality of solute particles
Dyes with PH sensitive colors are used as
indicators
Which mixture is made up of the smallest particles?
Salt water
Which of the following will dissolve most rapidly
powdered sugar in hot water
In an acid-base titration, equivalent quantities of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions are present
at the end point
Colligative properties depend on
the concentration of the solute particles
Why is boiling point elevation a colligative property?
It is directly proportional to the molal concentration of a solution.
The antilogarithm of a number, y, is
10 raised to the power of y
Precipitation is an example of what type of reaction?
double-displacement
When a weak electrolyte dissolves,
H30+ is produced
An acid-base titration is carried out by monitoring
PH
Which is not an example of a colloid?
Sugar water
Indicators are classified into three types according to
the PH at which they change color
In water solutions of HCL the free H+ ion is
not present
The hydronium ion contains
three equivalent covalent bonds
Which of the following will dissolve most slowly?
large salt crystals in unstirred water
Which of the following does not increase the rate of dissolving a solid in water?
Using larger pieces of solid
The separation of ions that occurs when an ionic compound dissolves is called
Dissociation
Which of the following is expressed in grams of solute instead of moles of solute?
Neither of these
The PH of an acidic solution is
less than seven
Ions are formed from solute molecules by the action of the solvent in a process called
Ionization
An acid-base titration involves a
neutralization reaction
The PH range over which an indicator changes color is its
transition interval
Electrolytes affect colligative properties differently than do nonelectrolytes because electrolytes
produce more moles of solute particles per mole of solute
Pure water partially breaks down into charged particles in a process called
self-ionization
What is the PH of a neutral solution at 25 degrees?
7
What is the concentration of H30+ ions in pure water?
10^-7
The Tyndall effect is used to distinguish between
solutions and colloids
A water solution whose PH is 6
is always acidic
What process measures the amount of a solution of known concentration required to react with a measured amount of a solution of unknown concentration?
Titration
Which of the following is an example of a polar solvent?
Water
When a molecular substance ionizes in water
charged particles are formed, and the less electronegative atom becomes a negative ion
The hydrogen ion
is a prton
Which indicator is used to study neutralizations of strong acids with strong bases?
Bromthymol blue
During an acid-base titration, a very rapid change in PH
occurs when the amounts of H30 and OH are nearly equivalent
Dissolving HCL in water produces
H30+ and CL -
All of the following are heterogeneous mixtures except
tap water
Substances whose water solutions conduct electricity easily
ionize in water q
How many ions are produced by each formula unit of solid in a dissociation?
Two or more
Pure water contains
everything
Which of the following is an example of a nonpolar solvent?
Toluene
Which of the following is an ionic compound that dissociates in water?
NaCl
Which of the following liquids is basic?
Milk
Electrolytes have a greater effect on freezing-point depression than nonelectrolytes because electrolytes
produce more moles of solute per mole of solvent
When solutions of two ionic compounds are combined and a solid forms, the process is called
precipitation
Which of the following is a weak electrolyte?
Acetic acid
The PH scale ranges from
0 to 14
What's the PH of a solution
-log(H30+
An acid-base titration determines the volumes of two solutions that
are chemically equivalent
A metal solution is an
alloy
Which of the following liquids is acidic?
Orange juice
Raising the collision rate between solute and solvent
increases the rate of dissolution