AP Psych Chapter 11
Terms in this set (49)
A method for assessing an individual's mental aptitudes and compring then with those of others, using numerical scores.
French psychologist who was hired by the French government to identify children based on their intelligence levels. He wanted to measure mental age and created an intelligence test to see if some children needed special attention.
Stanford professor who revised Binet's test by extending the age to young adults and changed the name to Standford-Binet. He promoted the widespread use of intelligence testing. He also believed that eugenics and the dullness of some ethnic groups hindered them from high intelligence. The government used his tests to evaluate new immigrants and army recruits during WWI. He also believed that test scores showed mental abilities and education and familiarity with the culture.
German psychologist who derived the famous intelligence quotient.
A measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance. Thus, a child who does as well as the average 8yr old is said to have a mental age of 8.
The widely used American revision (by Terman at Stanford University) of Binet's original intelligence test
Intelligence quotient (IQ)
Defined originally as the ratio of mental age to chronological age multiplied by 100. The average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100.
Mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations.
General intelligence (g)
A general intelligence factor that Spearman and others believed underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test.
He believed that people often have special abilities that stand out. He helped to to develop factor analysis and believed that there is general intelligence. Spear man believed that the commonality, the g factor, underlies all of our intelligent behavior and that he noted that some score higher on different areas.
A statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie one's total score.
Opponent of Spearman. He gave 56 different tests to people and mathematically identified eight clusters of primary mental abilities. He did not rank his subjects on a single scale of general aptitude.
He noted that brain damage diminishes the ability of some but not others and he studied people with exceptional abilities. He argued that we do not have an intelligence, but multiple intelligences in different categories such as in music or dance.
A condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing.
He distinguished more simply into three aspects of intelligence and agreed with Gardner's idea of intelligence.
Analytical (academic problem-solving) intelligence
Assessed by intelligence tests, which present well-defined problems having a single right answer.
Demonstrated in reacting adaptively to novel situations and generating novel ideas.
Often required for everyday tasks, which are frequently ill-defined, with multiple solutions.
The know-how intelligence involved in comprehending social situations and managing oneself successfully.
The ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions. (self-awareness)
The ability to produce novel and valuable ideas
A well-developed base of knowledge (the more ideas and phrases we have to work with through our accumulated learning the more chances we have to combine them)
Imaginative thinking skills
Provide the ability to see things in new ways, to recognize patterns, go make connections
A venturesome personality
Tolerates ambiguity and risk, perseveres in overcoming obstacles, and seeks new experiences rather than following the pack.
Creativity's fourth component. People focus on the intrinsic pleasure and challenge of their work.
Sparks, supports, and refined creative ideas.
Brain Function and Intelligence
Processing speed, perceptual speed, and neurological speed all have key roles in intelligence.
A test designed to predict a person's future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn
A test designed to reflect or assess what a person has learned
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAS)
Created by psychologist David Wechsler. It is the most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance (nonverbal) subsets.
Principles of Test Construction
To be widely accepted, psychological tests must meet three criteria: they must be standardized, reliable, and valid.
Defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pre tested "standardization group"
A bell-shaped pattern of scores that forms the normal curve
The symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes. Most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes. 68% of people score within 15 points above or below 100. 96% of all people fall within 30 points of 100.
The Flynn Effect
Intelligence test performance has been improving and this was discovered by James Flynn who first calculated it's magnitude.
The extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, on alternate forms of the test, or on retesting. A good test must yield dependably consistent scores. If the two scores generally agree or correlate, the test is reliable.
The higher the correlation between the test-retest or the spilt-half scores, the higher the tests reliability
The extent to which the test actually measures what it is supposed to measure or predicts what it is supposed to predict.
The extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest (such as driving test that samples driving tasks).
The behavior (such as college grades) that a test (such as the SAT) is designed to predict; thus, the measure used in defining whether the test has predictive validity.
The success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior. It is also called criterion-related validity.
A condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score below 70 and difficulty in adapting to the demands of life; varies from mild to profound.
A condition of retardation of and associated physical disorders caused by an extra 21st chromosome in one's genetic makeup.
The extent to which differences among people are attributable to genes. It will increase as environmental variation decreases.
J. McVicker Hunt
In an Iranian orphanage, he observed the dramatic effects of early experiences and demonstrated the impact of early intervention by initiating a program of tutored human achievement. The caregivers played vocal games with the babies and they were able to better learn language and speak. His book Intelligence and Experience, helped launch the Project Head Start that serves children who are below property level and it enhances children's chances for success in school by boosting their cognitive and social skills.
Gender similarities and differences
It is found that girls exceed boys in spelling, vocabulary, and speech comprehension. Boys, however, excel in math and science categories due to some considering them as more masculine subjects. Women are also better at detecting emotion and better emphatic skills.
The Question of Bias
Some wonder if intelligence tests are biased and whether a test is less valid for some groups than for others.
A self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype. This explains why women have scores higher when given math tests without men being tested with them, and why blacks have scored higher when tested by blacks than when tested by whites. (Why can't we all just have a fair chance and not see color? Lol)
Overall book concept of intelligence
Intelligence scores reflect only one aspect of personal competence.