Upgrade to remove ads
Chapter 4 Practice
Terms in this set (90)
Which of the following options best describes isomers?
Isomers contain the same number and type of atoms, but they are connected in different ways
1. Potential energy - stored energy or energy of position
2. Kinetic energy - energy of motion
The measure of the amount of energy dispersed in a process is called
Which of the following options correctly describe activation energy?
Increasing temperature allows more particle to have sufficient energy to overcome the activation energy barrier
Lower activation energy generally results in faster reactions
Place the steps for the production of ethanol from corn in order, first at the top
1. Corn kernels are mixed with water
2. Enzymes break down starches into glucose
3. Yeast fermentation converts sugars into ethanol
4. The mixture is distilled
Compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen are called
A sample of fuel is burned in oxygen, producing heat and light. Based on the first law of thermodynamics, which statement must be true?
The energy lost from the fuel and oxygen is equal to the energy of the heat and light
Which of the following options correctly describe temperature and heat?
Heat always flows from hotter object to colder ones
Temperature is a measure of the kinetic energy of molecules
Match. Associated energy change.
Bond breaking - absorbs energy
Bond forming - releases energy
Activation energy is best described as ___
the energy required to initiate a chemical reaction
Rank the grades of coal by their relative desirabilities, starting with mos desirable at the top
Anthracite, bituminous, lignite
How do temperature and activation energy relate to affect a reaction?
Increasing temperature provides particles with more kinetic energy, so the activation energy is more easily overcome
A - energy of reactants
B - activation energy
C - change in energy for the reaction
D - energy of products
Biofuels are energy sources that are produced from ___ matter
What are the biggest advantages of natural gas as a fuel source?
It leaves no ash residue
It produces almost no sulfur oxides
Following are steps seen when a Newton's cradle is used. Place in correct order.
1. one ball is lifted by hand, giving it potential energy
2. Ball is released, converting potential energy into kinetic energy as it falls
3. the falling ball strikes the unmoving balls, and kinetic energy is transferred through them to the ball on the opposite end
4. the opposite ball swings upward, converting its kinetic energy to potential energy
In the reaction shown, ___ C-H bonds and ___ O=O bonds are broken
How is ethanol most commonly used as a biofuel?
As a mixture with gasoline, typically 10%
Which of the following are common products of combustion?
Match. Compound to isomer.
Which of the following options correctly describes an exothermic reaction?
It releases more energy by forming product bonds than is needed to break reactant bonds
Using the graph, rank the use of coal, petroleum, hydroelectric, and nuclear power as energy sources in the US in 2000. Place least used at bottom.
What compound makes up the majority of natural gas?
Match. Alkane to chemical formula
1. methane - CH4
2. ethane - C2H6
3. n-pentane - C5H12
4. n-heptane - C7H16
A calorimeter is used to measure the ___ released or absorbed by a reaction
How many of each type of bond are formed or broken int he following reaction? 2C=O(g) + O=O(g) -> 2O=C=O(g)
2 C=O bonds are broken; 1 O=O bond is broken; 4 C=O bonds are formed
Place steps for distillation of crude oil in the proper order, beginning with the first step at the top of the list
1. the crude oil mixture is heated.
2. Compounds with the lowest boiling points vaporize
3. High-boiling compounds vaporize
4. Vapors are separated in the fractionation tower
5. Products are condensed and collected
In the octane rating system, iso-octane is assigned a rating of ___, while n-heptane has an octane rating of ___
Use bond energies to estimate the change in energy for the reaction shown
Which statements correctly express the second law of thermodynamics?
1. The entropy of the universe if constantly increasing;
2. energy conversions cannot be 100% efficient
Match. Reaction type to description
1. Exothermic - a reaction that releases heat
2. Endothermic - a reaction that absorbs heat
Which of the following statements correctly describe the advantages and disadvantages of using coal as a fuel source?
Coal mining can cause environmental harm; burning coal can release sulfur and mercury
Which of the following statements best describes the makeup of coal?
Coal is mostly carbon and hydrogen, with some oxygen and other trace impurities
The energy contained within fossil fuels originates from the conversion of ___ to ___
the energy of sunlight; stored chemical potential energy
Proposed "clean coal" technologies include which of the following techniques?
Chemically removing SO2 before releasing combustion products; washing to remove impurities before use
Place following objects in order of decreasing kinetic energy, with greatest energy at the top
1. Semi-truck moving at 45mph
2. Car moving at 45mph
3. Car moving at 10mph
4. Bicycle moving at 10mph
Match. Reaction to representative example
1. Catalytic cracking - C18H38 ->
2. Catalytic combination - 2C
3. Catalytic reforming - n-octane -> iso-octane
Which of these statements correctly describe coal mining?
1. Near-surface coal can be mined more safely than other deposits
2. Mining debris can damage or bury nearby water systems
Why is biodiesel unique among transportation fuels?
It can be made readily in small batches by individuals
Which of these units are commonly used to express heats of combustion?
Which compound of n-pentane?
Which of the following best describes the process of combustion?
Chemical combination with oxygen to release energy
Which of the following statements are true about glycerol?
1. Glycerol can be converted to propylene glycol
2. Glycerol is used in soaps and cosmetics
3. Glycerol is a by-product of biodiesel production
Which of the following statements correctly describe the possible effects of different hydrocarbons on an internal combustion engine?
1. Preignition occurs when cylinder compression alone can ignite a fuel.
2. Knocking is a violent and uncontrolled reaction inside an engine cylinder
A particular grouping of atoms that gives characteristic chemical and physical properties to a molecule that contains it is known as a ___ group
Which of the following statements correctly describe the primary uses of the chemical reactions of gasoline production?
1. Catalytic combination converts multiple small molecules into larger molecules, and it can be used to form polymers
2. Catalytic cracking is used to overcome in high energy expenditure required for traditional thermal cracking
The heat of combustion of a compound is best described as ___
the amount of heat released when a specific amount of substance burns
Clean coal technologies are best described as methods of ___
increasing the efficiency and decreasing the harmful emissions of coal power plants
Which of the following options correctly explain why fossil fuels do not meet the criteria for sustainability?
They are nonrenewable resources; undesirable waste products include CO2, toxic metals, and oxides of sulfur and nitrogen
If carbon (graphite) releases 394 kJ/mol when burned, how many kJ of energy are released for each g of carbon burned?
What effect does a catalyst have on a chemical reaction?
A catalyst lowers the activation energy for a reaction
Which of the following are true of biodiesel molecules?
Biodiesel molecules contain a "cap" from methanol or a similar alcohol; biodiesel molecules contain an ester functional group; biodiesel molecules contain a long hydrocarbon chain
What is the modern metric unit of energy?
Which of the following options correctly describe fossil fuels?
They are not sustainable at the current rate of use; their use raises atmospheric CO2 levels
Which of the following statements correctly describe petroleum?
It is a mixture of many different compounds; it is made from partially decomposed organic matter
Energy conversion can never be 100% efficient because ___
some amount of potential energy is always dissipated as heat
Which of the following statements correctly describe bond energy?
Bond energy values are always positive; the total energy required to break bonds depends on the number of bonds
Which of the diagrams correct energy diagram for reaction? C3H8(l) + 5O2(g) -> 3CO2(g) + 4H2O(g) + 2220.1kJ
Which equation gives net efficiency for energy transformation in a power plant?
(electrical energy produced / heat from fuel) x 100
Which of the following reactions will release the most energy?
High-energy reactants form low-energy products
Which of the following are advantages of oxygenated fuels?
They produce less CO than traditional gasoline; they enhance the octane rating of the gasoline
How id biodiesel prepared?
By reaction of triglycerides with an alcohol such as methanol
Which statements describe steps in the production of fossil fuels?
1. Sunlight energy is captured by plants during photosynthesis
2. Increasing temperature and pressure cause new chemical reactions that convert plant matter into fossil fuels
3. Plants partially decompose, releasing stored energy and producing H2O and CO2
Which of these elements are common contaminants in coal?
Lead; arsenic; sulfur
Which of the following is an additive commonly added to produce oxygenated gasolines?
Based on energy diagram, what happens when hydrogen reacts with oxygen to form water vapor?
483.6 kJ of heat are released for every mole of O2 that reacts
Which of the following options correctly explains why an energy change calculated using bond energies may not match experimental results?
1. Bond energies are given for molecules in the gaseous state.
2. Bond energies vary between molecules, even for the same pair of elements
Which of the following statements correctly describe photosynthesis?
1. it removes free CO2 from the atmosphere
2. It generates products with higher potential energy than its reactants
3. It requires energy input to occur
The bond energy of a C-H bond is
the amount of energy consumed to break a C-H bond
Which of the following options correctly explain why petroleum has overtaken coal as the largest energy source in the US?
1. It is easier to extract from underground
2. It produces more energy per gram than coal
Which statement best describes the benefits of catalysts for green chemistry?
They are not consumed in the reaction, so only small amounts are needed, and they allow for lower reaction temperatures
When oil is burned in a power plant, the ___ energy of the oil is converted into heat, which increases the ___ energy of the water
Which of the following options correctly describe internal combustion engines?
1. They use the gas products of combustion to drive mechanical pistons
2. They are less efficient than most power plants
3. More than half the energy they produce is lost as heat
Which of the following statements describe cellulose?
Cellulose is a structural component of plants
Cellulose is a polymer of glucose
Which of the following statements correctly describe methods of improving the octane rating of gasoline?
Catalytic reforming can be used to create molecules with higher octane ratings;
Tetraethyl lead (now banned) served as an antiknock additive in gasoline
What is the biggest limitation in the production of petroleum products?
The amount of easily recoverable deposits
Which of these properties make one grade of coal more desirable than another?
Lower oxygen content;
Higher C content;
Lower sulfur content
If a sample of coal can be approximated by the formula C140H90O5SZn, what mass percent of the coal is carbon
What are the greatest advantages of biofuels?
They can release less net CO2 than fossil fuels;
They are renewable resources
Biodiesel is sold as a blend with petroleum-based diesel. Blends that contain up to ___% biodiesel are compatible with any diesel engine
Which of the following are issues raised by the 2011 Nuffield Council report on biofuels ethics?
Loss of biodiversity to biofuels agriculture
Competition of biofuels with food crops
Which of these statements correctly describe the Fischer-Tropsch process?
This process can be used to produce gasoline from coal
This is an example of a catalytic process
If an office building requires 8.7 x 10^10 kJ of energy per day, how much fuel must be burned at a 42% efficient power plant to supply the building?
2.1 x 10^11 kJ
Which of the following products are separated from crude oil?
Industrial oils and lubricants;
Starting materials for plastics and other carbon-based products
Which of the following comprise the largest component of gasoline?
hydrocarbons with 5-12 carbon atoms
What is cellulosic ethanol?
Ethanol produced from inedible parts of plants
Which of the following statements are true about triglycerides?
1. Triglycerides can be used to prepare biodiesel
2. Fats and oils consist of triglycerides
3. A triglyceride molecule contains three hydrocarbon chains
What are reformulated gasolines?
Oxygenated gasolines with lower percentages of some volatile organic compounds
The chemical definition of an alcohol is a molecule that
contains a hydroxyl (OH) group
Which of the following power plants has the highest net efficiency?
A plant that produces 450 kJ of electricity from 1000 kJ of heat
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Chemistry Chapter 7
CHM 1020 Chapter 4
Chapter 3 practice
Chemistry Chapter 8
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Chapter 8 Biology Review
Mastering Biology Chapter 8
Chapter 6: Intro to Metabolism
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Chemistry Final Hw
Chemistry Chapter 12
Chemistry Chapter 11
Chemistry Chapter 10
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
Chemistry Exam (1st semester): Multiple Choice
unit 5 questions
Commercial Boilers Quiz 2
Steam Power Systems II Problem Set 1-1