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A change in position compared to the starting location, which happens over a period of time


A push or pull that causes an object to move, stop, or change direction


A force that acts against or stops motion when two surfaces rub against each other.

potential energy

The energy available as a result of an object's postition or condition.

kinetic energy

Energy that an object has because it's moving.


A force that pulls objects to the earth.


A measure of the amount of force gravity exerts to hold you to the ground.

balanced force

Two pushes or pulls that cancel each other out, and do not cause a change in motion.

unbalanced force

Two forces that are unequal (one is stronger than the other), and cause a change in motion.


The amount of matter (or stuff) in an object.

contact force

A force between two objects that are touching each other.

non contact force

Any force on an object by another object that is NOT touching it.


The ability to cause a change in matter.

Newton's 1st Law

An object at rest, stays at rest and an object in motion tends to stay in motion, in the same direction and speed...unless acted on by a force.

Newton's 2nd Law

An object's acceleration depends on the size and direction of the force, and the mass of the object.

Newton's 3rd Law

For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.


The tendency of an object to resist change in its movement, whether the object is moving or at rest.


A measure of an object's change in motion during a given time.


A measure of how hard it is to slow down or stop an object.


The CHANGE in speed of an object in motion.

simple machine

One of six basic devices that helps us do work.


A simple machine made up of one or more sloping sides used for raising, holding, or splitting an object.

wheel and axle

A simple machine made up of a large wheel connected by a smaller cylinder (axle) that is fastened to the wheel so they turn together.


A simple machine made up of a wheel with a groove and a rim, through which a chain or rope makes lifting easier.


A simple machine made up of a bar that turns or moves on a fixed point called a fulcrum.


A simple machine made up of an inclined plane wrapped around a center pole; it holds things in place.

inclined plane

A simple machine made up of a flat surface used to move things up and down.

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