Terms in this set (36)

  • The destruction of a cell membrane is called _____.
    Lysis
  • What was added in the experiment to weaken and destroy cell membranes?
    Detergent
  • Endonucleases are enzymes that can damage _____.
    DNA
  • Enzymes that damage proteins are called _____.
    Proteases
  • DNA is composed of billions of building blocks called _____.
    Nucleotides
  • DNA is very _____ and does not dissolve in nonpolar solutions such as alcohol.
    Polar
  • A chemical, like DNA, that does not dissolve into another chemical, like alcohol, is said to be _____.
    Insoluble
  • Over time, DNA will begin to fall out of solution or _____ as long, thread-like strands.
    Precipitate
  • Which alcohol did we use in the lab to isolate DNA?
    Ethanol
  • Chromatin
    DNA and its associated proteins in a dispersed state
  • Chromosomes
    Condensed, coiled, threadlike structures of DNA and its associated proteins
  • In a double-stranded molecule of DNA, what type of bond holds the nitrogenous bases together?
    Hydrogen bond
  • Adenine (A), Thymine (T), Cytosine (C), and Guanine (G) are the four _____ of DNA.
    Nitrogenous bases
  • What two molecules form the backbone of DNA?
    Sugar and a phosphate group
  • In the complementary base pairing rules of DNA, Thymine (T) pairs only with _____.
    Adenine (A)
  • In the complementary base pairing rules of DNA, Guanine (G) pairs only with _____.
    Cytosine (C)
  • The genes of DNA tell the cell to make other molecules called _____.
    Proteins
  • When enzymes are _____, they lose their 3-D shape and become inactivated.
    Denatured
  • Adding, deleting, or transplanting genes from one organism to another, to alter the organism in useful ways, is called _____.
    Genetic engineering
  • The sugar that makes up the structure of DNA is called _____.
    Deoxyribose
  • The alignment of the two strands of a DNA molecule where the backbones are flipped relative to each other is referred to as _____.
    Antiparallel
  • A cell can copy its DNA because the parental DNA molecule can be used as a _____ for the synthesis of the new daughter strands.
    Template
  • DNA fingerprinting
    A tool used by biologists that analyzes an individual's unique collection of DNA restriction fragments; used to determine whether two samples of genetic material are from the same person.
  • Nucleotides within a strand of DNA are connected by _____ bonds.
    Covalent
  • What type of cell did we use to extract DNA?
    Human cheek cells
  • What specific chemical in detergent dissolves cell membranes?
    Sodium lauryl sulfate
  • DNA is copied in the process of _____.
    Replication
  • _____ is the type of cell division that produces genetically identical daughter cells.
    Mitosis
  • What enzyme unwinds the DNA molecule during replication?
    Helicase
  • The enzyme that joins adjacent nucleotides to each other in DNA replication is called _____.
    DNA polymerase
  • DNA synthesis is referred to as _____ because each daughter strand is composed of half parental DNA and half newly synthesized daughter DNA.
    Semiconservative
  • Mistakes in DNA replication that are passed on to offspring are called _____.
    Mutations
  • _____ enzymes act as molecular scissors that cut DNA at specific sequences during DNA fingerprinting.
    Restriction
  • A DNA sequence that reads the same both forward and backward, like GGCC, is called a:
    Palindrome
  • In a real DNA fingerprint, the fragments are separated from each other by size using:
    Gel electrophoresis
  • In gel electrophoresis, the larger DNA fragments move more _____ than smaller fragments.
    Slowly