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Nursing 201 Powerpoints (Chapter 4) Theoretical Foundations of Nursing Practice
Terms in this set (22)
Theories help to
describe, explain, and/or predict nursing care measures. Well-developed theories are an important basis for your approach to nursing care
To address individual and family responses to health problems
theory-based nursing practice is important for designing and implementing nursing interventions
The Domain of Nursing
-the nursing profession draws from many areas: nursing history, nursing theory, education, practice, and research and the domain is knowledge of all of these
-Domain: perspective of a profession; Provides the subject, central concepts, values and beliefs, phenomena of interest, and central problems of a discipline
-domain of nursing provides both practical and theoretical aspects of the discipline
-Links science, philosophy, and theories accepted and applied by a discipline
-A Nursing paradigm links person, health, environment/situation, and nursing
-A paradigm is useful in describing the domain of a discipline
-The elements of the nursing paradigm, including knowledge development, philosophy, theory, educational experience, research, and practice, direct the activity of the nursing profession
*In medicine, physicians diagnose and treat disease.
*In nursing, nurses diagnose and treat human responses to actual or potential health problems.
*In nursing, you will use critical thinking skills to integrate knowledge, experience, attitudes, and standards into the individualized plan of care for each patient.
-Person-recipient of care
-Health-different meanings for each patient
-Environment/situation-all possible conditions affecting patients and settings where care occurs
-Nursing-"diagnosis and treatment of human responses to actual or potential health problem"
-Nursing process: Method of applying the theory or knowledge
-Integration of theory and nursing process is the basis for professional nursing.
-A theory contains a set of concepts, definitions, and assumptions or propositions that explain a phenomenon.
-Theories guide the design of nursing interventions.
*Is a conceptualization of some aspect of nursing
*Describes, explains, predicts, and/or prescribes nursing care
-Theories constitute much of the knowledge of a discipline.
-Nursing theories provide nurses with (1) a perspective from which to view patient situations, (2) a way to organize data, and (3) a method for analyzing and interpreting information.
-Theory is the generation of nursing knowledge used for practice.
Components of a Theory
-The theory explains how these elements are uniquely related in the phenomenon.
-A phenomenon is an aspect of reality that people consciously sense or experience. In nursing, phenomena include caring, self-care, and patient response to stress.
-A theory consists of interrelated concepts. Concepts help to describe or label phenomena.
-The definitions within a theory communicate the general meaning of the concepts. These definitions describe the activity necessary to measure the concepts within a theory.
-Assumptions are taken-for-granted statements that explain the nature of the concepts, definitions, purposes, relationships, and structure of a theory.
[Fig. 4-1 is on text p. 41.]
***Phenomenon: Term, description, or label given to an idea or responses about an event, process, group of events or situations
Types of Theory
-Theories have different purposes and sometimes are classified by levels of abstraction.
-Grand: Broad in scope, complex, require specification
*does not provide guidelines for specific nursing interventions but provides the structural framework for broad and abstract ideas related to nursing
-Middle-range: more limited in scope and less abstract, help nurses understand how patients cope
*address a specific phenomenon and reflect practices of administration, clinical interventions, or teaching.
*These types of theories cross different nursing fields and reflect a wide variety of nursing care situations such as uncertainty, incontinence, social support, quality of life, and caring.
-Descriptive: describe phenomena, speculate on why phenomena occur, describe the consequences of phenomena, first level of theory development
*does not direct specific nursing activities but help to explain patient assumptions.
-Prescriptive: Address nursing interventions for a phenomenon, predict the consequence of a specific nursing intervention
*theories designate the nursing intervention, the condition under which the nursing intervention occurs, and the consequences of the intervention. These theories guide nursing research to develop and test specific nursing interventions.
Theory-Based Nursing Practice
*Generate nursing knowledge for use in practice Can direct how to use nursing process
*Are adaptable to different patients and all care settings
-The goal of nursing knowledge is to explain the practice of nursing as different and distinct from the practice of medicine, psychology, and other health care disciplines.
-Nursing is a practice-oriented discipline. Nursing process is not a theory. It is a systematic set of steps for the delivery of nursing care, not the knowledge component of our discipline.
-Remember that a theory can direct how a nurse uses the nursing process.
-Theory generates nursing knowledge for use in practice, thus supporting evidence-based practice. Integration of theory into practice is
the basis for professional nursing.
-Theories from nursing and other disciplines help explain how the roles and actions of nurses fit together in nursing.
-Explain systematic views of phenomena specific to the discipline of inquiry:
-Basic human needs-Maslow's
-Developmental-Piaget (cognitive development)
*Developmental theories help determine whether patients are adapting during their specific developmental stage in life.
*Psychosocial theories help us to predict patient responses to their physiological, psychological, sociocultural, developmental, and spiritual needs.
QUIZ: Nursing theories provide nurses with perspectives from which to
A. Analyze patient data.
B. Predict phenomena.
C. Formulate legislation.
D. Link science to nursing.
Selected Nursing Theories:
-Environment as the focus of nursing care
Selected Nursing Theories:
-Focus on personal relations between nurse, patient, and patient's family
-Development of nurse-patient relationship
Selected Nursing Theories:
Henderson (1955, 1966)
-14 Basic Needs of the whole person
-Framing nursing care are the needs of the individual.
Selected Nursing Theories: Orem (2001)
-Focuses on patient's self-care needs
-Goal is for patient to manage his or her health problems.
Selected Nursing Theories: Leininger (2010)
-Theory of cultural care, diversity and universality
-Considers social structure factors
Selected Nursing Theories: Neuman (2010)
-Based on stress and the patient's reaction to the stressor
-Role of nursing is to stabilize the patient or situation.
Selected Nursing Theories: Roy (1989)
-Views the patient as an adaptive system
-When patient cannot adapt to stressors, nursing is needed.
Selected Nursing Theories: Watson (1996)
-Defines the outcome of nursing activity with regard to the humanistic aspects of life
-Purpose is to understand the interrelationships among health, illness, and human behavior.
Selected Nursing Theories: Benner and Wrubel (1989)
-Caring is central
The Link Between Theory and Knowledge Development
-Nursing knowledge is theoretical and practical.
-The goals of theoretical knowledge are to stimulate thinking and create a broad understanding of the "science" and practices of the nursing discipline.
-Experiential knowledge, or the "art" of nursing, is based on nurses' experiences in providing care to patients.
-Theories provide direction for nursing research.
-Nursing theory and nursing research build the knowledge base for nursing, which is then applied to practice.
-Theory-generating or theory-testing research refines the knowledge base of nursing.
-Nurses incorporate research-based intervention into theory-based practice.
QUIZ: Nursing process is central to nursing practice. Nursing practice
A. Is a theory.
B. Is derived from a theory.
C. Is not adaptable to all patients.
D. Generates knowledge for use in practice.
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