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54 terms

Chemistry Final Exam

chemistry final exam terms
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reactants
a substance that reacts in a chemical change
products
a substance that is formed in a chemical change.
fluidity
the ability to flow and therefore take the shape of its container...
pressure
the force per unit area on a surface
diffusion
spontaneous mixing of the particles of two substance cased by their random motion
effusion
a process by which gas particles pass through a tiny opening
kinetic molecular theory
a theory based on the idea that paricles of matter are always in motion.
ideal gases
an imaginary gas that perfectly fits all the assumptions of the kinetic molecular theory
real gases
a gas that does not behave completely according to the assumptions of the kinetic molecular theory
london forces
an inter-molecular attraction resulting from the constant motion of electrons and the creation of instantaneous dipoles.
dipole dipole
a force of attraction between polar molecules ...
hydrogen bonds
the inter-molecular force in which a hydrogen atom that is bonded to a highly electronegative atom is attracted to an un-shared pair of electrons of an electronegative atom in a nearby molecule.
triple point
indicates the temperature and pressure conditions at which the solid, liquid, and vapor of the substance coexist at equilibrium
critical temperature
the temperature above which a substance cannot exist in the liquid state
solute
the substance being dissolved into a solution
solvent
the dissolving medium in the solution
solution
• Dispersed particles are individual ions or molecules
• Transparent (see through them)
• Stable (do not separate upon standing)
• Cannot be separated by filtration (or distillation)
colloid
• Dispersed particles are clumps of molecules with particle sizes
• Look homogeneous to the naked eye
• Often murky or opaque
• Particles are large enough to scatter light (Tyndall Effect)
• Particles are too small to be separated by filtration
suspension
• Dispersed particles are clumps of molecules
• Particles may be visible to the naked eye
• Do not transmit light
• Can be separated by filtration
unsaturated
a solution that contains less solute than the saturation solution under the existing conditions
saturated
a solution that contains the maximum amount of dissolved solute
supersaturated
a solution that contains more dissolved solute than a saturated solution contains under the same pressure
dilute
there is relatively small amounts of solute in a solvent
concentrated
there is a relatively large amount of solute in a solvent
electrolyte
a substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that conducts an electric current
non electrolyte
a substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that does not conduct an electrical current
strong electrolyte
any compound whose dilute aqueous solution conducts electricity well
weak electrolyte
any compound whose dilute aqueous solutions conduct electricity poor
dissociation
the separation of ions that occurs when an ionic compound dissolves
ionization
the formation of ions from solute molecules by the action of the solvent; any process that results in the formation of an ion.
emulsifying agent
substances added to an emulsion to prevent the coalescence of the globules of the dispersed phase.
miscibility
the ability for liquids and solids to dissolve freely in one another in any proportion
volatile
a liquid that evaporates readily
surface tension
a force that tends to pull adjacent parts of a liquid's surface together, thereby decreasing surface areas to the smallest possible size
spectator ions
the ions that do not change from one side of the equation to the other.
london dispersion force
the only intermolecular force in non-polar compounds. This is the weakest force that is found in all atoms and molecules. It has to do with the way the electrons are distributed for an instant.
dipole dipole
found in polar compounds
hydrogen bond
the strongest dipole dipole force. A molecule that is very positive on one end and very negative on the other end.
hydrogen bond, dipole dipole, london dispersion
name the order of strengths of the intermolecular forces
low volatility
if the inter molecular forces are STRONG what can you about the volatility?
high boiling point
if the inter molecular forces are STRONG what can you about the boiling point?
high surface tension
if the inter molecular forces are STRONG what can you about the surface tension?
high capillary action
if the inter molecular forces are STRONG what can you about the capillary action?
gas because there is not much energy holding the molecules together
If the only intermolecular forces present in a substance are London dispersion forces, what would probably be the physical state of the substance at room temperature?
chemical change
color change, formation of a precipitate, evolution of a gas, and energy release are indicators that a _____ has taken place?
when you use up the limiting reaction
when will a reaction stop?
boiling point
temperature when the vapor pressure equals the prevailing atmospheric pressure
effervescence
rapid escape of a gas
0K
-273 degrees is the same thing as ____?
temperature
factors affecting solubility of a solid in a liquid?
temperature and pressure
factors affecting solubility of a gas in a liquid?
henry's law
the solubility of a gas in a liquid id directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas on the surface of the liquid.
real gases
gases that are far apart, are in constant motion, lose energy when they collide, have weak attractive forces, and when you heat them up they move faster
ideal gases
gases that are far apart, are in constant random motion, they do not lose energy when they collide, and there are no attractive forces between them, and there is an increase in kinetic energy when there is an increase in temperature.