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an imaginary gas that perfectly fits all the assumptions of the kinetic molecular theory
a gas that does not behave completely according to the assumptions of the kinetic molecular theory
an inter-molecular attraction resulting from the constant motion of electrons and the creation of instantaneous dipoles.
the inter-molecular force in which a hydrogen atom that is bonded to a highly electronegative atom is attracted to an un-shared pair of electrons of an electronegative atom in a nearby molecule.
indicates the temperature and pressure conditions at which the solid, liquid, and vapor of the substance coexist at equilibrium
• Dispersed particles are individual ions or molecules
• Transparent (see through them)
• Stable (do not separate upon standing)
• Cannot be separated by filtration (or distillation)
• Dispersed particles are clumps of molecules with particle sizes
• Look homogeneous to the naked eye
• Often murky or opaque
• Particles are large enough to scatter light (Tyndall Effect)
• Particles are too small to be separated by filtration
• Dispersed particles are clumps of molecules
• Particles may be visible to the naked eye
• Do not transmit light
• Can be separated by filtration
a solution that contains less solute than the saturation solution under the existing conditions
a solution that contains more dissolved solute than a saturated solution contains under the same pressure
a substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that conducts an electric current
a substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that does not conduct an electrical current
the formation of ions from solute molecules by the action of the solvent; any process that results in the formation of an ion.
substances added to an emulsion to prevent the coalescence of the globules of the dispersed phase.
a force that tends to pull adjacent parts of a liquid's surface together, thereby decreasing surface areas to the smallest possible size
london dispersion force
the only intermolecular force in non-polar compounds. This is the weakest force that is found in all atoms and molecules. It has to do with the way the electrons are distributed for an instant.
the strongest dipole dipole force. A molecule that is very positive on one end and very negative on the other end.
hydrogen bond, dipole dipole, london dispersion
name the order of strengths of the intermolecular forces
high surface tension
if the inter molecular forces are STRONG what can you about the surface tension?
high capillary action
if the inter molecular forces are STRONG what can you about the capillary action?
gas because there is not much energy holding the molecules together
If the only intermolecular forces present in a substance are London dispersion forces, what would probably be the physical state of the substance at room temperature?
color change, formation of a precipitate, evolution of a gas, and energy release are indicators that a _____ has taken place?
the solubility of a gas in a liquid id directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas on the surface of the liquid.
gases that are far apart, are in constant motion, lose energy when they collide, have weak attractive forces, and when you heat them up they move faster
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