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chapter 18 vocab strayer
Terms in this set (25)
term that Karl Marx used to describe the owners of industrial capital
British Royal Society
Association of scientists established in England on 1660 that was dedicated to the promotion of "useful knowledge"
Caste War of Yucatan
long revolutionary struggle (1847-1901) of the Maya people of Mexico against European and mestizo intruders
a military strongman who seized control of a government in nineteenth century Latin America
major international conflict (1854-1856) in which British and French forces defeated Russia; the defeat promted reforms within Russia
term used to describe Latin America's economic growth in the nineteenth century, which was largely financed by foreign capital and dependent on European and North American prosperity and decision
Mexican dictator from 1876 to 1911 who was eventually overthrown in along and bloody revolution
the elected representative assembly grudgingly created in Russia by Tsar Nicholas the second in response to the 1905 revolution
Indian cotton textiles
For much of the 18th century, well-made and inexpensive cotton textiles from India flooded Western markets; the competition stimulated the British textile industry to industrialize, which led to the eventual destruction of the Indian textile market both in Europe and in India.
British working-class political party established in the 1890's and dictated to reforms and a peaceful transition to socialism, in time providing a viable alternative to the revolutionary emphasis of Marxism
Latin American export boom
Large-scale increase in Latin American exports (mostly raw materials and foodstuffs) to industrializing countries in the second half of the nineteenth century, made possible by major improvements in shipping; the boom mostly benefited the upper and middle classes.
Pen name of Russian Bolshevik Valdimir Ulyanov (1870-1924)
Lower middle class
People employed in the growing service sector as clerks, salespeople, bank tellers, hotel staff, secretaries, telephone operators, police officers (service industry) and jobs like so. About 20% of citizens of Britain belonged to this class.
German philosopher, economist, and revolutionary. With the help and support of Friedrich Engels he wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (1867-1894). These works explain historical development in terms of the interaction of contradictory economic forces, form the basis of all communist theory, and have had a profound influence on the social sciences.
a bitter and bloody conflict, broke out when middle class Mexicans joined with peasants and workers to overthrow the powerful dictator Porfirio Diaz
Belief system typical of the middle class that developed in Britain in the nineteenth century; it emphasized thrift, hard work, rigid moral behavior, cleanliness, and "respectability."
automobile manufactured by Henry Ford to be affordable on the mass market
Socialist thinker and wealthy mill owner (1771-1858) who created an ideal industrial community at New Lanark, Scotland
Peter the Great
Tsar of Russia (r. 1689-1725) who attempted a massive reform of Russia society in an effort to catch up with the states of western Europe
Late-nineteenth-century American political movement that denounced corporate interests of all kinds
American political movement in the period around 1900 that advocated reform measures to correct the ills of industrialization
Marx's term for the exploited class, the mass of workers who do not own the means of production
Russian revolution of 1905
Spontaneous rebellion that erupted in Russia after the country's defeat at the hands of Japan in 1905; the revolution was suppressed, but it forced the government to make substantial reforms.
socialism in the United States
Fairly minor political movement in the United States, at its height in 1912 gaining 6 percent of the vote for its presidential candidate.
A machine that turns the energy released by burning fuel into motion. Thomas Newcomen built the first crude but workable one in 1712. James Watt vastly improved his device in the 1760s and 1770s. It was then applied to machinery.