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19 terms

Cultural Anthropology Humanity Chapter 12

Chapter 12- The Organization of Political Life
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band
a small forging group with flexible composition that migrates seasonally
simple bands
autonomous or independent political units, often consisting of little more than an extended family, with informal leadership
composite bands
autonomous political units consisting of several extended families that live together for most if not all of the year
big men
political leaders who do not occupy formal offices and whose leadership is based on influence, not authority
influence
the ability to convince people they should act as you suggest
authority
the recognized right of an individual to command another to act in a particular way; legitimate power
tribe
an autonomous political unit encompassing a number of distinct, geographically dispersed communities held together by sodalities
sodalities
formal institutions that cut across communities and serve to unite geographically scattered groups
chiefdoms
centralized political systems with authority vested i formal, usually hereditary, offices or titles
state
a centralized, multilevel political unit characterized by the presence of a bureaucracy that acts on behalf of the ruling elite
social control
mechanisms by which behavior is constrained and directed into acceptable channels, thus maintaining conformity
law
a kind of social control characterized by the presence of authority, intention of universal application, obligation and sanction
self-help legal systems
informal legal systems in societies without centralized political systems, in which authorities who settle disputes are defined by the circumstances of the case
feud
a method of dispute settlement in self-help legal systems involving multiple but balanced killings between members of two or more kin groups
court legal systems
systems in which authority for settling disputes and punishing crimes is formally vested in a single individual or group
incipient courts
court systems in which judicial authorities meet in private to discuss issues and determine solutions, evidence is not formally collected, parties involved are not formally consulted
courts of mediation
court systems in which the judges attempt to reach compromise solutions, based on the cultural norms and values of the parties involved, that will restore social cohesion
courts of regulation
court systems that use codified laws, with formally prescribed rights, duties, and sanctions
reasonable-person model
a model used in legal reasoning that basically asks how a reasonable individual should have acted under these circumstances