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130 terms

FORENSIC SEMESTER TEST STUDY GUIDE

STUDY
PLAY
gender of victim
The rate of cooling of a dead body can be influenced by all BUT the:
Locard
Who established the first workable crime laboratory?
Gross
Who wrote the first treatise describing the application of science to the field of criminal investigation?
Doyle
The fictional character of Sherlock Holmes was created by:
Los Angeles Police Department
The oldest forensic laboratory in the United States is that of the:
formal degree in forensic science
Which is NOT true? An expert witness must be able to demonstrate:
Locard
The exchange of evidence principle was?
FBI
Which entity maintains the largest crime laboratory in the world?
both criminal and civil laws
Forensic science is the application of science to:
drowning
Which is NOT a manner of death?
guilt of the suspect(s)
What is the LEAST important consideration in the gathering of evidence at a crime scene?
stiffness of death
Rigor mortis refers to the:
increases
As the post mortem interval increases, the concentration of potassium in the vitreous humor of the eye:
AIDS and hepatitis B (both A and B)
The presence of blood and semen at crime scenes exposes investigators to:
in the process of a legal arrest
The police are not required to obtain a search warrant if they are:
sketch of the suspect(s)
A rough sketch need NOT include a:
packaged in an air tight glass jar
Charred debris from an arson scene should be:
depict injuries and weapons at scene
If the crime scene includes a dead body, the photographer should:
zone
Which crime scene search pattern would absolutely require more than one investigator?
fingerprint analysis
Which would not be included in the work of the biology unit of a crime lab?
7 hours
A corpse was discovered in an apartment last November. It was that of a 50-year-old male who died of a heart attack. At the time of discovery, the body temperature was determined to be 89 degrees fahrenheit. What is the most probably post mortem interval?
none of the above (not chemistry, geology, nor biology)
Which area of science is NOT involved in criminalistics?
Note taking is done after all crime scene processing has been completed.
Which statement about note taking is NOT true?
secure the scene
The first officer arriving at a crime scene, after providing or obtaining medical assistance for the injured and effecting an arrest of suspects (if possible), should immediately:
trial judge
A properly maintained chain of custody is NOT the responsibility of the:
livor mortis
Evidence of tampering with the position of a body after death can be obtained by evaluating the:
the standard reference sample (control) does not share characteristics with evidence at the crime scene
Physical evidence can be used to exonerate or exclude a person from suspicion if:
refractive index
The _________ of a substance varies with the color of the light passing through it, its temperature, and the wavelength of the light passing through it.
greater than
The change in refractive index upon annealing tempered glass is _________ the change in refractive index upon annealing untempered glass.
liter
The basic metric unit for volume is the:
weight
Which is NOT an intensive property of matter?
sand
What is the main ingredient in ordinary glass?
.26445 kilograms
The weight 264.45 grams can be correctly expressed as:
less than
The birefringence of a sodium chloride (a cubic crystal) is ____ the birefringence of a calcite (a non-cubic crystal).
greater than
The use of the Celsius temperature scaleby scientists is ____ their use of the Fahrenheit temperature scale.
float
If an object is immersed in a liquid of greater density, it will:
greater than
The heat intensity (hotness) of water at 10 degrees Celsius is _____ the heat intensity of water at 21 degrees Fahrenheit.
size
Which would be LEAST useful in identifying a mineral crystal?
the side and rear windows of autos manufactured in the United States
Tempered glass is used in:
identity of a material
A qualitative test will reveal the:
TLC
Which chromatographic process has minimal equipment and space requirements?
solid to gas
Sublimation is defined as a change of state from:
greater than
The freezing point of water in Fahrenheit is ____ the freezing point of water Celsius.
density
Flotation is a method used by scientists to determine the ____ of a particle of glass.
is made with the addition of boron oxide
Pyrex glass:
A first
In reference to the diagram above, what is the correct sequence of impacts?
comparison of dried soil samples for color and texture
What is the logical first step in soil analysis?
is wider on the exit side
When a bullet penetrates a panel of glass, it leaves a crater-shaped hole that:
determine colors of an organic compound
Chromatography is NOT used to:
liquid
Which physical state has volume but no specific shape?
true
True or False: Radial cracks appear first, starting on the side opposite the destructive force. (during the fracturing of glass)
violet
Which color of the visible spectrum has the highest frequency and the shortest wavelength?
X rays
Which type of radiation is NOT given off by radioactive decay?
isotopes
Atoms having the same atomic number but different atomic masses are called:
trace elements
Paint and hair, soil and fibers, and glass and metal objects would be expected to have _______.
electron energy levels
An element is selective in the frequency of light it will absorb. This selectivity is due to its:
fine or coarse adjustment
When using a compound microscope, the areas about and below the depth of focus are best viewed by adjusting the:
polarizing
Which microscope is best suited to the study of birefingent minerals and fibers?
stereoscopic
Which microscope has the largest potential working distance?
transmitted and vertical illumination
A comparison microscope designed to examine bullets and cartridges is equipped with:
medulla
The central canal running through many hairs is known as the:
cotton or wood pulp
A regenerated fiber is not derived from:
triangular
Beard hairs are coarse and normally _____ in cross-section.
greater than
The presence of sheath cells on hair that has been pulled quickly from the head is ____ the presence of sheath cells on hairs that have been removed slowly from the scalp.
cuticle
Which part of the hair shaft is the most resistant to chemical decomposition?
beneath the stage
The condenser of a compound microscope is located:
IR
Which absorption spectrum is equivalent to a "fingerprint" of a substance?
Pyrolysis GC
Paint chips, plastics and fibers can be analyzed using which chromatographic process?
450x
A compound microscope is equipped with two objectives lenses (10x and 45x) and has a 10x ocular lens. The highest magnification attainable with this instrument is:
cortex
Pigment granules that impart hair with color are found in the:
SEM
Which microscope is most likely to be used as a tool for determining whether a suspect has recently fired a gun?
Cellulose
_______ is the basic component of cotton, starch, and wood.
tile
Which is NOT considered a porous surface?
iodine fuming
Sublimation occurs with the use of:
Super Glue fuming
Which chemical treatment produces a white-appearing latent print?
during fetal development
Fingerprints are formed:
latent
Prints that are not readily visible are commonly referred to as:
loop
The most common ridge pattern is the:
false
True or false: Digital imaging does not allow for the simultaneous comparison of two prints.
whorls on the left index and right ring fingers
A PC of 9/3 means that there are
2,1,3
In which order should chemical treatments to visualize latent prints be performed? 1. ninhydrin 2. iodine fuming 3. physical developer
whorl
In the Primary Classification System, a finger is assigned numerical value if its pattern is a:
cardboard
Superglue fuming is NOT suitable for use on:
2
In the Primary Classification scheme, the left index finger has a potential value of:
protein material
Ninhydrin is used on a latent print to detect:
directly related
Generally, the gauge of a shotgun is ______ to the diameter of its barrel.
striation markings
Discharged evidence bullets must be carefully handled to avoid damage to the:
all of the previous (extractor and ejector mechanism and firing pin)
Distinctive markings of shells and cartridges can be made by:
both A and B (IR photograph and the Greiss test)
Gun powder residue patterns can be detected by:
photographing and casting with dental stone
Shoe and tire marks impressed into soft earth can be best preserved by:
model, make, and year
After examining small paint chips from an auto accident scene and using the PDQ database, the crime lab worker can determine the ___ of the vehicle.
dermal papillae
To permanently alter the fingerprint and produce scars, one must damage the
take a 1:1 photograph of the print
After successfully visualizing a latent print on an object an investigator should next:
none to date
Under which circumstances have two people been found to have identical fingerprints?
wear marks
Which is NOT a class characteristic of a suspect's sneaker
transported to the crime lab in a container with enough of the same water necessary to keep it submerged
When a gun is recovered from an underwater location, it should be:
bullet will be made to spin and hence have a true and accurate course on leaving the barrel
The reason grooves are rifled into the bore of a gun is so that a:
John Dillinger
Which person attempted to destroy his fingerprints with a corrosive acid?
plastic
Prints impressed in a bar of soap are referred to as:
codeine
Use of this drug is not likely to lead to psychological dependence:
narcotics
Most _______ are obtained from opium, physically addicting, and are depressants to the central nervous system.
marijuana
What drug is the most widely used illicit drug in the United States today?
marijuana
Which drug is often incorrectly classified as a narcotic?
PCP
Which hallucinogen can be synthesized by a simple chemical process and is often manufactured in clandestine laboratories?
alcohol
Which is the most widely used and abused drug?
phenobarbital
Which barbiturate is absorbed more slowly than others?
Barbiturates
______ act to produce sleep, promote relaxation, and create a feeling of well-being.
solvents
The sniffing of volatile _____ can cause drowsiness and stupor, slurred speech and double vision, and feelings of exhilaration and euphoria.
stimulant
Methamphetamine is a:
opiate
Cocaine is a(n):
Controlled Substance Act
The ___________ established five schedules of classification for substances based on the drug's potential for physical and psychological dependence, medical value, and potential for abuse.
color
Which type of test would logically be used first by the drug analyst?
bloodstream
The amount consumed, the presence or absence of food in the stomach, and the alcoholic content of the beverage are all factors in determining the rate at which alcohol is absorbed into the ________.
direct
There is a(n) ______ relationship between the amount of alcohol in the blood and that in the alveolar breath.
performance of sit ups
Field sobriety tests do NOT include:
procaine
upon entering the bloodstream, heroin is almost immediately metabolized into:
aspirin
Which is an acid drug?
copper
The Reinsch test would NOT be used to detect:
combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin
Carbon monoxide is toxic because it:
A and B
In routine blood banking, which antigen(s) must be determined in testing for compatibility?
both A and B antigens
Type AB blood contains:
AB
In the United States, the rarest blood type is:
a precipitin test
To determine whether a bloodstain is of human or animal origin, the serologist will perform:
monoclonal antibodies
____________ are produced by injecting a mouse with an antigen, are produced utilizing rapidly multiplying blood-cancer cells, and are expected to be medicine's version of the "magic bullet."
less than
The rate of alcohol absorption on a full stomach is ___ the rate of absorption on an empty stomach.
iodine fuming
Sublimation occurs with the use of:
protein material
Ninhydrin is used on a latent print to detect:
Super Glue fuming
Which chemical treatment produces a white-appearing latent print?
lift the print with adhesive tape
After successfully visualizing a latent print on an object and photographing it, an investigator should next:
pencil
Sometimes previous writing on a pad of paper can be made to appear simply by rubbing over it lightly with a: