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Terms in this set (86)
the degree of alertness reflecting whether a person is awake or asleep. is the heightened awareness of the present moment
the monitoring of information from the environment and from one's own thoughts
a state of consciousness in which the eyes are closed and the person in unresponsive and unarousable.
state of minimal consciousness.
generally results from illness or brain injury that damages areas of the brain that control wakefulness. It involves the reticular formation structure.
a state of minimal consciousness, in which they eyes might be open but the person is otherwise unresponsive.
minimally conscious sate
in which the person is barley awake or aware but shoes some deliberate movements.
material that is potentially accessible but not currently available to awareness.
someone's name is on the tip of your tongue.
we know someones name, and we know we know it, but we can't come up with it.
sleep and dream
the experience of knowing that we know a name is conscious, even if we cannot bring the name into awareness.
when we thrive in our ability to rise to the occasion of challenging tasks.
a heightened awareness of the present moment, whether of events in one's environment or in one's own mind.
the limited capacity to process information that is under conscious control.
the ability to focus awareness on specific features in the environment while ignoring other.
cocktail party effect
ability to filter out auditory stimuli and then to refocus attention when you hear your name is called.
this phenomenon by which we fail to notice unexpected objects in our surroundings
perceptual load model
we do not notice potential distracters when a primary task consumes all of our attentional capacity.
conscious attention when neurons from many distinct brain regions work together
the ability to maintain focused awareness on a target or an idea.
compromised during multitasking.
attention on a particular task
You watch a movie and then at the end you realize you have 15 texts and cant believe how you didn't notice all of these distractions.
a practice that people use to calm the mind, stabilize concentration, and focus attention, and enhance awareness of the present moment.
encourages attention of details of momentary experience, such as all the thoughts, feelings, and sensations available at present.
long-term changes in the parts of the brain linked to concentration have been noted to result from_____
biological processes that occur on approximately a 24-hour cycle and include functions such as
sleeping and waking
variations in physiological processes that cycle within approximately a 24-hour period, including the sleep-wake cycle.
are known to increase motivation
the general term for awareness of sensations, thoughts, and feelings being experienced.
Effects of MDMA (ecstasy)
sense of peacefulness and calm.
users also report feeling energetic and a sense of empathy and connectedness to those around them.
stimulant and hallucinogen
sense of well-being
exhilaration and euphoria
any substance that is naturally occurring or synthesized that produces a change in your conscious experience.
describes a state of mind that occurs in compliance with instructions and is characterized by focused attention and suggestibility
15% of people are easily hypnotized
can be used to relieve pain during childbirth, dental procedures, and surgery, as well as treating nicotine addiction, nausea and vomiting related to chemotherapy, and anxiety associated with certain medial procedures.
the most common drug that is used to produce changes in the perceptual process.
more intense sensory experiences
reducing nausea associated with chemotherapy
reducing symptoms associated with AIDS
THC is the active drug
arousal effect on the central nervous system
create an increase in heart rate, blood pressure, and muscle tension.
narcotics are a type of depressant
includes heroine morphine and many other prescribed pain killers.
depressing the nervous system
slowing the heart rate, breathing, and digestion
suppressing the cough system
stimulant drug meaning it increases activity in the central nervous system
increase alertness and decreased motor coordination and heart rate, insomnia.
worlds most widely consumed psyoactive drug.
withdraw effects: headache, fatigue, decreased energy, depressed mood, difficulty concentrating.
an effect found in which people take a longer time to identify colored words when the colors are meanings of the words do not match.
is a stimulant drug
slow down central nervous system activity
means that their main function is to slow down the activity in the central nervous system.
psychoactive drug creates distorted perceptions of reality
dreams commonly occur in REM sleep
over life span development infants spend the most amount of time in REM sleep because it assists in brain growth and development
changes across the life span by declining rapidly
more like regular thinking
full-blown dreams are LESS common
permanent brain damage
overdose leads to death
psychological drug addiction
the person's belief that she or he cannot function without the drug
stage 2 sleep
when we move from stage 1 to stage 2 sleep, theta waves start having brief, high energy periods of activity.
characterized by sleep spindles
the internal "timekeeper" located in the hypothalamus is the _____, which regulates physiological activity on a daily cycles.
the frightening experience of a nigh terror typically:
occurs during Stage 4 non-REM sleep
does not cause the dreamer to stay awake for long periods
typically occurs in children ages 3 to 8.
do not occur during REM sleep and are not associated with dreams
contents of consciousness at any given time
represents the amount of sleep our brains owe our bodies
encourages attention to the details of momentary experience, such as all the thoughts, feelings, and sensations available in the moment.
improves attentional skills
people who regularly take sleeping aids to help them fall asleep at night may be unable to sleep without them even though they may not be physically dependent on them.
when people compulsively use a substance to alleviate boredom, regulate mood, or cope with the challenges of everyday life
maintain normal function and to cope with the challenges of daily life.
are the adverse effects people with physical dependence experience if they stop using a drug.
stage 4 sleep
more delta waves appear and sleep spindles decrease
deepest stage of sleep
leads to leukemia, cataracts, pneumonia, cancer of the cervix, kidney, pancreas, and stomach, and lung cancer.
theory for why we dream
affects the brain through widespread deficits in cognition and behavior, frontal lobe damage leading to deficits in planning, working memory, and abstract reasoning, damage to the hippocampus leading to deficits in learning and memory, and the loss of neurons.
raises the amount of the beneficial form of cholesterol (HDL) in the blood, which has protective effects on the cardiovascular system.
unconscious wish fulfillment theory
Freud's surface level of dreams, recalled upon waking
Freud's deeper, unconscious level of dreams; their meaning is found at this level.
stage one sleep
hormone that plays a rile in relaxation and drowsiness.
a participant receives one message in one ear and another message in the other ear. The participant is told to pay attention to one of the ears.
activation input mode
AIM (dream theory)
refers to the amount of neural activation and ranges from low to high activation
whether stimulation is internal or external
mental stat- from logical(wakeful) to loose-illogical(dreaming).
the manifest content
in dreams, objects represent something else. The object or apparent story line that appears in the dream
side effects: increases body temperature
increased blood pressure
works on the serotonin neurotransmitter
5 drinks in a row for men
4 drinks in a row for women
interferes with our ability to learn, complete tasks successfully and even engage in complex tasks well.
cannot fall asleep and at times it takes more than 20 minutes to fall asleep, he also has trouble staying asleep.
when we are fully awake and experience fluctuations in consciousness.
a pattern of brain activity when one is awake
rapid, low-energy wave
a pattern of brain activity when one is relaxed and drowsy.
sleep deprivation impact on
creativity when people wake up with new understandings on how to solve their problems
objects in dreams represent something else. the object that is being disguised is referred to as ____
active ingredient of a hallucinogenic mushroom
sleep helps fighting cell damage
it triggers the production of enzymes that fight cell damage
it slows metabolism itself, thereby slowing the rate of cellular damage.
natural pain relievers
a sleep difficulty characterized by sleeping more than 10 hours a day for 2 weeks or more, including the urge to nap during inappropriate times.
is when people develop the ability to know when they are dreaming and can therefore control the events and outcomes of the dreams
a weakness of facial muscles and muscles in the limbs.
decreases the amount of melatonin it releases in response to light in the morning.
sleep difficulty characterized by activities occuring during non-REM sleep that usually occur when one is awake, such as eating.
people with brain damage, especially to the frontal lobes, have trouble with selective attention.
the model that says that e do not notice potential distracters when a primary task consumes all our attentional capacity.
typical dreams with frightening plots
when we fail to notice unexpected objects in our surroundings.
waves that dominate stage 3 sleep
slow the heart rate, relax skeletal muscles, and tranquilize the mind
global workspace of consciousness
when you imagine standing in your backyard and makes the connections among various processes to have a conscious experience of your backyard.
makes people perceive physical objects with greater sensitivity.
natural, marijiana-like substances produced by the body.
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