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NR 300 Midterm #1
Terms in this set (74)
Hantavirus was four times more prevalent at the collection sites with _________ _____________ than those with more.
Who was it that said "The goal of conservation biology is to provide principles and tools for preserving
Conservation biology has been described as a ________ discipline.
What is Conservation Science according to Michael Soule?
- crisis discipline
- inexact science that must tolerate uncertainty
- value-laden, mission-oriented science
What is Conservation Science according to Kareiva and Marvier?
- strategies maximize preservation
- crisis discipline
- expression of human values, and not always positive
- Biology focused conservation > ill-conceived solutions
What is biodiversity?
a hierarchical concept that includes genes, species, populations, communities and ecosystems
What is genetic diversity?
the basis for natural selection and evolution - the survival of species depends on genetic diversity
Preserving genetic diversity is a very
important element of ____________ as well as __________ ___________
conservation, human well-being
genetic diversity within species may...
play an analogous role to species diversity in some systems.
What is the significance of Eel Grass?
It shows that with greater genetic diversity they are more resistant to herbivory, and are less susceptible to algal blooms
What is the significance of the Grassy-stunt virus?
- Severely reduced rice yields in Asia in the 1970's
- Disease resistance found only in one population
- Resistant rice are now grown across Asia
- Est. annual global value of genetic resource: $500-800 billion.
What is the significance of the Banana fungus?
Modern bananas are sterile and this fungus could wipe them out because they are the only type of bananas left due to human preference
What is the definition of a species?
A group of actually or potentially interbreeding individuals that are reproductively isolated from other groups.
Why does the definition of a species matter?
Under the ESA species can be characterized by 3 ways;
A population will be considered "distinct" (and hence a "species") if...
it represents an evolutionarily significant unit (ESU) of the biological species
What are the two criteria that must be met to classify something as a new species or ESU?
1) reproductively isolated from other population units
2) must represent an important component in the evolutionary legacy of the species
How many living species have been described?
1.75 million living species
How many fossil species have been described?
Estimates on total living species range from ___ - ___
- recent study estimates that there are actually about...
3 to 30 million, 8.7 million
How many new species are described each year?
What are the three ways that we know the the total number of species on the planet?
- We estimate the ratio between known groups of species and then apply that ratio globally
- Collect all organisms from a particular area and calculate percent known
- Species accumulation curves
What is a population?
A group of individuals of a particular species
living in a specific area at the same time
What is Alpha diversity?
species richness in a single place
What is Beta Diversity?
change in species richness between two places (total species unique to each place)
What is Gamma Diversity?
overall diversity for multiple places within a region
("geographic scale species diversity")
What are Ecoregions?
large areas with similar abiotic conditions and a distinct assemblage of flora and fauna
How many distinct languages are there globally?
the average U.S. home contains how many arthropods?
Current rate of extinction
~27,000 per year
we in the midst of the ____ mass extinction
According to the IUCN Red list of __% of species assessed, ____% are threatened with extinction
What percentage of freshwater is used by humans?
What percentage of NPP is used by humans?
With 4% of world's population, US accounts for ___% of daily oil consumption
Major forces that threaten biodiversity
- Habitat loss and fragmentation
- Invasive species
- Climate change
- Over exploitation
What are the two classic philosophies towards nature?
1. Utilitarian (Anthropogenic)
2. Intrinsic (Biocentric)
Intrinsic value may be attributed to organisms but not to objects because...
they have their own goals to grow, reach maturity and to reproduce (interests = intrinsic value)
Norton's view on intrinsic value of nature
intrinsic value should be abandoned -divisive
Fox's view on intrinsic value of nature
intrinsic value shifts burden of proof from conservationists to people whose actions jeopardize it
What is a cost-benefit analysis?
compares monetary costs and monetary benefits of an action to determine whether benefits outweigh the costs
uses cost of available substitutes
Substitute or alternative cost approach
What is it called when the environment is a factor in production?
Production function approach
measures what has to be given up for the sake of preservation
Opportunity cost approach
Implicit Market Techniques (2)
- Hedonic pricing methods
- Travel cost method
Contingent valuation method: willingness to pay for some environmental good
What is the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment?
Largest assessment ever undertaken of the health of ecosystems; Prepared by 1360 experts from 95 countries
What are Ecosystem Services?
Conditions and processes through which ecosystems and their constituent species sustain and fulfill human life
What portion of the Earth's ecosystem services declined between 1950 and 2000?
What was the estimated cost of the built capital versus natural capital for New York City's water problem?
$6-8 Billion vs $1-1.5 Billion
impacts that affect many but not all species and that may be temporary
impacts so severe that nearly all species are adversely affected and the time span needed for recovery is extremely long
In how many countries do forests no longer exist?
In ____ countries ___ % of the forests have been lost
Why was most of Europe's forests lost before the 1700's?
In Africa what percentage of it forests were lost in the 1990's alone?
The deforestation of the Amazon has turned this once carbon sink into
a major source of carbon emissions
Deforestation rate since 2000
50 football fields per minute
What percentage of tall grass prairie is gone?
Marine bottom trawling =
What are the biological consequences of habitat fragmentation?
1. Initial exclusion
2. Crowding effect
3. Area effect
5. Edge Effects
Roads equal what percentage of US land area?
Each zebra mussel produces how many eggs per year?
Cost of zebra mussel damage
What is a "novel ecosystem"?
A system of abiotic, biotic, and social components that, by virtue of human influence manifest novel qualities without intensive human management
How was the Burmese Python introduced to Florida?
The port of Miami through the pet trade
What factors led to the successful invasion and establishment of the Burmese Python?
These species are well adapted to swamp environments and tropical climates
Why is the python so difficult to detect and control?
They spend very little time out in the open looking for food because they are ambush predators
What are the impacts of the python on the native bird, mammal and reptile community?
The native birds have declined drastically and mammal have also suffered greatly as a result of the python introduction
What was the key finding of Dr. Reed's study of marsh rabbits?
77% of the fecund rabbits were killed by pythons
what are the Burmese Python's limitations?
They cant survive in cold environments north of Everglades NP
As Burmese pythons spread into areas that are higher and drier, where are they finding refuge from cold temperatures?
Turtle, mole and other underground burrows
According to Hanski, what might be the relationship between species diversity and human health?
reduced contact of people with natural environmental features and biodiversity may adversely affect the human commensal microbiota and its immunomodulatory capacity
Evidence of 6th mass extinction
- 30-50% of all species extinct by mid-century
- 27,000 species go extinct per year