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Government Chapter 6
Terms in this set (70)
President's official role
assigns president to do 5: chief executive, chief administrator, commander in chief, foreign policy leader. "Executive power" means carry out laws. Pres. carrys out duties as chief executive to see govt programs carry out/laws implemented. Pres. has assistance, he act as chief administrator (manager) and any fed. agencies help do govt policy.
Pres. also commander in chief of nation military. he has power to put troops action and back. (Congress declares war, Pres, controls troops)
As foreign policy leader, pres. makes nation's plan and deals wit other countries. (figuring out treaties and ambassadors).
does diplomacy. Pres. set govt agenda, makes him chief agenda stter.
President's Unofficial Roles
chief of state (head of state symbolic figure head of US), party leader (shaping/promote platform) and chief citizen (pres. and VP only 2 nationwide elective positions in gov. Primary representative of nation)
(Formal Characteristics of Presidency) Term of office
-pres can serve 2 4 years term.
-G. Washington set unofficial rule.
-F Roosevelt broke rule by running 4 terms.
(Formal Characteristics of Presidency)Election to office
-voters choose electors(electoral college)
--help balance small/large states
Washington DC has 3 elec. votes
-states uses popular vote
-48 states "winner take all"
(Formal Characteristics of Presidency) Succesion
Pre, VP, Speaker of House.
(Formal Characteristics of Presidency) Salary and Benefits
$400,000 travel allowences, tax deduction for 2 residents, health and retirement stuff, staff for protection.
(Unwritten qualifications for pres) Presidential background
Most presidents are well educated.
Has cristian beliefs
most in military
favored former gov from white house
Aka title for president, who holds the executive's power to run government programs and implement laws that are passed by Congress
Commander in chief
(Another title for president) who serves as commander of the nation's military forces
A nation's plan and procedures for dealing with other countries
The art of negotiating with foreign governments
Chief of state
(Another title for the president) takes on the role of the symbolic figurehead of the United States; also known as the head of the state
1st step of electoral college (elections are selected)
Electors are nominated by state political parties the summer before an election.
States nominate three different means:
-Named by campaign committees.
Names from parties are submitted to Secretaries of State at least one month prior to election
2nd step of electoral college (Election Day)
Voters cast ballots for presidential and Vice President candidates. Each vote is awarded to voters who represent candidates.
In all but two states, electors representing candidate who wins the popular vote becomes members of electoral college
3rd step of electoral college (electoral votes counted)
At separate meetings in each state 41 days following election, electors cast one ballot for president and another for Vice President. Six days later, current Vice President officially counts electoral votes during joint session of congress. Candidate who receives most votes wins
The process of succeeding, or coming after someone
Commanding the armed forces
Which of the following is a role of the president defined in the Constitution?
Must be a natural-born citizen
Which of the following is a requirement for holding the office of President?
A. Must have served as Vice President
B. Must be a natural-born citizen
C. Must win election unanimously
Which group formally elects the president and Vice President?
Speaker of the House of Representatives
According to the Succession Act, which officer is next in line for the presidency after the Vice President?
Which of the following offices have many recent presidents held before their presidency?
A. U.S. Senator
B. State governor
C. Army general
Appointment and removal of key executive branch officials, issuing executive orders, and maintain executive privilege
President has three main powers:
Formal, signed statements from the president that instruct or guide executive officials and have the force of law
(Executive Powers) Appoint and removal powers
Use this pwr as political tool (reward supporters), allows president to place ppl in key positions that support his policies. third of positions pres fills must be approved by senate.
Formal, signed statements from the president that instruct or guide executive officials and have the force of law
The power that allows a president to refuse to release information to congress or a court
(disputed by other courts, pres does it arguing Nat. Security)
(Diplomatic and Military Powers) Diplomatic powers
President is Foreign Policy Leader and Represents US in foreign policy
-Negotiates treaty(2/3 from senate approval)
-Forms alliances, puts trade relationships
-Make executive agreements= agreement btwn Pres and foreign Govt
-No advice & consent of senate
-force of law(NAFTA)
Diplomatic recognition-Pres. can recognize legit of foreign gov't
(Diplomatic and Military Powers) Military Powers
President is Commander in Chief
-ensure defense, security of nation, & interest in world.
-Set troops without congressional war declare
-Pres. must report to Congress with in 48 days if he sends troops w/o Congress' permission
-if Congress says no, troops must be pulled out in 60-90 days
(Legislative & Judicial Powers) Legislative Powers
President is Chief Agenda Settler and is influence work of Congress.
-Pres. proposes legislation to Congress thru annual State of Union address & Federal Budget proposal.
-Pres. can suggest legislation anytime
MAIN POWER=Veto(override it with 2/3 vote in congress)
(Legislative & Judicial Powers) Judicial Powers
President has 2 ways to exercise judicial powers:
1. President nominates Federal Judges & Justices.(pres. picks ppl with political beliefs by senate & Supreme court Judges serve 4 life)
2. Can alter sentence of ppl convicted of crimes thru powers clemency (mercy)(only applies to fed. crimes)
-reprieve= postpones carry out of sentence.
-Pardon= release convicted criminal form fulfilling sentence. (ex. Pres. Ford pardoned Nixon after Nixon resigned)
-Amnesty= grants group offenders a general pardon for offenses committed.
Informal Powers (indirectly stated in cons.)
1. Access 2 media (helpful to be skilled in using media)
2. President position as party leader (offers support to fellow party members at election time.)
(Checks on Presidential Powers) Formal Checks
-Judicial Review (Supreme court controls constitutionally)
-Checked by Congress (Senate block pres. appointed ppl & override veto)
(Checks on Presidential Powers) Informal checks
-influences public approval
-more popular pres. is = more likely congress will pass things in pres. favor
Changes in presidential power (intro)
-growth of government to new challenges and changes
-growth of nation as world power
(Changes in presidential power) First 100 Years
-framers gave majority of power to congress
-early president shared same beliefs
John Adams and Jefferson didn't vetoed bills during their presidential years bc Jefferson thought vetoes should only be when the pres. doubts constitutionality.
Jefferson gained power when he bought Louisiana purchase even if constitution didn't say so.
A. Jackson see president as 1 true representative of ppl and this gave him power that Congress didnt claim. He gave himself the right to veto acts of Congress bc he disagrees. (vetoed more bill than any presidennt)
T. Rosevelt used power to break up trust, puts conservation land, and gain control of canal.
Ronald Regan gained defense in cold war.
Frank roosevelt gained p power by new deal
(Changes in presidential power) Presidential power expands
Civil war was TURNING POINT in presidential power.
-gov expanded in emergency, then reverted. (lincoln was freindly to constitution)
-Theodore Roosevelt being president as MAJOR CHANGE
-saw pres as "bully pulpit" that fixed public opinion
-pressured Congress to pass Legislation.
-Convinced Congress to give Executive branch stronger powers to regulate commerce, protect park lands and check safety of food supplies.
-President Franklin Roosevelt made New deal to shift Americans' gov responsibility and help create better society.
(Changes in presidential power) The media
-influences public opinion
-another way to spread message
The presidential power to formally recognize the legitimacy of a foreign government
A postponement in the carrying out of a prison sentence
An official act by the president or by a governor forgiving a person convicted of a crime and freeing that person from serving out his or her sentence
A general pardon for offenses committed by a group of offenders
To reduce a person's sentence
A formal rule or regulation instruction executive branch officials on how to carry out their jobs
What is an executive order?
What principle did President Nixon use when he refused to turn over tapes of his conversations
NAFTA is an example of which of the following?
b. executive order
c. diplomatic recognition
d. executive agreement
Suggesting legislation and the power to veto
Which of the following are two legislative powers that the president has?
He believed the war threatened the Constitution
Why did President Lincoln take on more powers for the executive branch during the Civil War?
presidential staff expanding, accommodate more presidential staff members and have offices and conduct their work. Symbol of how presidential power has grown.
Executive office of President (EOP)
-President's administration made up of ppl who work for executive branch.
-top administration office belongs to EOP
-consist of seperate offices that help president make policies.
White House Office, National Security Council, Council of Economic Advisers, and office of management and budget
the types of EOP offices
Formation of EOP
Didnt exist 100 years ago (small personal staff, only cabinent)
T Roosevelt expanded Pres. staff
F Roosevelt ask congress to make new structure EOP for NEW DEAL programs
-EOP members nominated by Pres/confirmed by senate.
(Executive office of President) White House Office
-heart of EOP
-consist of president's key personal & political staff.
-president determines size of WHO
-President appoints Chief of staff to manage White House.
-role varies from president to pres.
-personal secretary & legal counsel report to CHEIF OF STAFF
-Oversees teams doing political task, handling relations with congress and cabinets.
National Security Council
one of the most important parts of EOP. Brings together top military, foreign affairs, and intelligence officials. Focuses on U.S national security.
Council of ECONOMIC Affairs
Gives President EXPERT ANALYSIS of economy. Sees how events may affect President's economic policy, when it affects economy. It also assist President forming economic policy. CEA has 3 members nominated by president. CEA helps president with economic report.
(EOP) Office of Management and Budget
helps develop federal budget, oversees execution by agencies in executive branch. Gathers info and sets police with MANAGING GOV FINANCES and bought goods services and property
Preside over senate, open & count electoral votes during election day, and run as pres. if pres. cant do job.
The Vice President's 3 major duties:
organization made up of leaders of executive departments, that carry out laws, administering programs, and making regulations.
the group of people who work for the executive branch under a specific president
Executive Office of the President
the group of advisers and assistants to the president
white house office
the key assistants and deputy assistaints
Chief of staff
The official who manages the everyday operations of the White House Office or who may serve as the primary presidential adviser who controls all access to the president and helps map political strategy
National security council
The group of top military, foreign affairs, and intelligence officials in the president's administration that focuses on U.S. National security
Council of Economic Advisers
The group advisers charged with providing the president with expert analysis of economy and to also assist in forming economic policy
Office of Management and budget
The organization set up to develop and implement the federal budget, legislation, government regulations, the management of government finances, and purchase of goods, services, and property for the entire government
Agencies of federal government responsible for carrying out laws, administering programs, and making regulations in their particular area of responsibility
White House Office
Which office oversees the personal and political staff of the president?
A. White House Office
B. Office of Speechwriting
C. National Security Council
White House office
The presidential press secretary work for which office?
Presiding over the senate
Which of the following is a duty of Vice President outlined in the constitution?
A. Formulating energy policy
B. Conducting foreign policy
C. Presiding over the senate
Heads of executive departments
Who makes up the president's cabinet?
How many official cabinet members are there?
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