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36 terms

Airway Management

airway management
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patent airway
an airway (passage from nose or mouth to lungs) that is open and clear and will remain open and clear, without interference to the passage of air into and out of the body.
pharynx
the throat
oropharynx
where the oral cavity joins the pharynx
nasopharynx
where the nasal passages empty into the pharynx
laryngopharynx
structures surrounding the entrance to the trachea
hypopharynx
laryngopharynx
glottic opening
entry point to the larynx
epiglottis
large leaflike structure protecting the glottic opening
vocal chords
curtainlike fibers that line either side of the tracheal opening; not only close shut for protection but also vibrate with the passage of air to create the voice
thyroid cartilage
shieldlike cartilage that protects the front of the larynx and form's the adam's apple
lower airway
comprised of the trachea, bronchial passages, and the alveoli
upper airwar
comprised of the nose, mouth, nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx
cricoid ring
1st of 16 cartilagenous rings that protext the trachea
carina
point where the trachea branches off into the bronchi
alveoli
ting sacs that occur in grapelike bunches at the end of the airway (where gas exchange occurs on the capillaries)
foreign bodies
include small toys and food, also blood and vomit.
tongue
common obstruction of airway
acute airway obstruction
choking on a foreign body, vomit, blood
obstruction over time
edema from burns, trauma, or infection; decreasing mental status
bronchoconstriction
that contraction of smooth muscle that lines the bronchial passages that results in a decreased internal diameter of the airway and increased resistance to air flow
stridor
a high pitched sound generated from partially obstructed air flow in the upper airway
airway obstruction sounds
gurgling, gasping, crowing, wheezing, snoring, and stridor
stridor
severely restricted air movement in the upper airway. identified by high pitched, whistling sound when breathing. can be a foreign body or swelling of tissues in upper airway.
hoarseness
raspy voice as swelling builds up around vocal chords
snoring
sound of soft tissue of the upper airway creating impedance (or partial obstruction) to the flow of air.
gurgling
sound of fluid obstructing the airway
mechanism of injury
one that can cause head, neck, or spine injury
head-tilt, chin-lift maneuver
a means of correcting blockage of the airway by the tongue by lifting the head back and lifting the chin. ised when no trauma, or injury, is suspected.
jaw-thrust maneuver
a means of correcting blockage of the airway by moving the jaw forward without tilting the head or neck. used when trauma, or injury, is suspected to open the airway without causing further injury to the spinal chord in the neck.
oropharyngeal airway
a vurved device inserted through the patient's mouth into the pharynx to help maintain an open airway.
nasopharyngeal airway
a flexible breathing tube inserted through the patient's nose into the pharynx to help maintain an open airway
gag reflex
vomiting or retching that results when something is placed in the back of the pharynx. this is tied to the swallow reflex.
suctioning
use of a vacuum device to remove blood, vomitus, and other secretions or foreign materials from the airway.
3 rules of suctioning
1) always use appropriate infection control practices
2) suction for no longer than 10 seconds
3) place the tip or catheter where you want to suction and suction on the way out
special considerations for children
1) smaller nose and mouth
2) bigger tongue
3) narrower, flexible trachea
4) cricoid cartilage is less rigid and developed
components of suctioning
suction tip, suction catheters, collection container, container of sterile water, tubing