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100 terms

Chapter 16: The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels and Circulation Practice Test

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Which of the following blood vessels is the site most often used to find a pulse?
radial artery
Blood is carried away from the heart by?
systemic and pulmonary arteries
A(n) _______ is a thin, weakened section of the wall of a blood vessel which is prone to rupture.
aneurysm
Which of the following arteries is a branch of the brachiocephalic trunk?
right subclavian
Which artery enters the skull through the foramen magnum?
vertebral
Which of the following arteries is/are NOT a branch(es) of the aorta?
pulmonary arteries
The _______ is the part of the aorta that passes through the diaphragm.
descending aorta
The circle of Willis provides blood supply to the _______.
brain
The basilar artery is formed by the union of the _______ arteries.
vertebral
Which of the following vessels return blood directly into the inferior vena cava?
hepatic veins and common iliac veins
Which category of blood vessels are the thinnest, walled structures?
capillaries
The longest vein in the human body is the _______.
great saphenous
Which of the following carries oxygenated blood?
pulmonary vein
Which of the following veins is/are most responsible for draining blood from the head?
internal jugular
Endothelium makes up the _______ layer of the arteries.
inner layer
The exchange of nutrients and waste products takes place through the walls of _______.
capillaries
Which of the following is the largest artery in the thigh?
femoral
If your total blood volume is 5 liters, the volume in your veins and venules at any given time is about _______.
3 liters
Blood pressure is highest in the _______.
aorta
Contraction of skeletal muscles in the leg causes blood to be pumped toward the heart because?
proximal valves open and distal valves close
Which type of blood vessel is primarily responsible for control of systemic vascular resistance on a moment-to-moment basis?
arterioles
The most immediate result of increased skeletal muscle contraction and increased respiratory rate (activating the "respiratory pump") would be?
increased venous return to the heart
Stimulation of baroreceptors in large arteries of the head and neck, triggers sympathetic stimulation of vascular smooth muscle, resulting in?
vasoconstriction
If blood pressure drops, negative feedback mechanisms trigger?
increased heart rate, stroke volume, and vasoconstriction
Which of the following lowers blood pressure by causing vasodilation and promoting the loss of Na+ ions and water?
atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
Which of the following chemical changes in blood is least likely to activate chemoreceptors (in aorta and carotids) to signal the cardiovascular center to increase heart rate?
High blood level of O2
True or false: Blood in a femoral vein does normally pass through the hepatic artery and the liver en route back to the right atrium.
False
If the blood pressure reading on a patient is 142/96, the diastolic pressure is _______.
96 mm Hg
The most proximal portion of the aorta is the _______.
ascending aorta
The diameter of the aorta in an adult is about _______.
1 inch
The blood that flows to the left arm passes through the _______.
left subclavian artery
The right radial and right ulnar arteries are branches of the right _______ artery.
brachial
True or false: The kidneys are supplied with blood from branches of the celiac artery.
False
The unpaired visceral branches of the abdominal aorta are the _______.
celiac, superior mesenteric and inferior mesenteric arteries
The descending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum are supplied with blood by the _______.
inferior mesenteric artery
The abdominal aorta divides into the common iliac arteries at about the level of the _______.
fourth lumbar vertebra
The transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae have foramina that allow passage of the _______.
vertebral arteries
True or false: Brachial veins are superficial veins?
False
When the axillary vein leaves the arm and enters the shoulder region it is renamed the _______.
subclavian vein
Visualize red blood cells in the left femoral vein. What would the correct sequence of three blood vessels that they are likely to enter next be?
left external iliac vein ◊ left common iliac vein ◊ inferior vena cava
True or false: The inferior vena cava receives blood directly from the gastrointestinal tract?
False
At the back of the knee, the anterior and posterior tibial and small saphenous veins drain blood into the _______ vein.
popliteal
By age 80, blood flow through the kidneys is likely to be about _______ percent less than that in the same person at the age of 30.
50
Orthostatic hypotension is most likely to occur when a person does what?
stands up
A vein that carries blood from one organ to another (when neither is the heart)--such as intestine to liver-- is called a ______ vein.
portal
The ability of a tissue to automatically adjust its blood flow to match its metabolic demands is called what?
Autoregulation
The fossa ovalis is to the foramen ovale as the ligamentum arteriosum is to the _______.
ductus arteriosus
The precapillary sphincters
are structures that regulate the flow of blood to what?
the capillaries
The exchange of respiratory gases, nutrients, and wastes, between fetal and maternal circulatory systems, occurs through what?
the placenta
Renin, the chemical that triggers the RAA mechanism (renin-angiotensin-aldosterone), is produced by what?
the kidneys
True or false: Autoregulation of blood flow into the capillaries in a specific area, such as an active gastrocnemius muscle, is under the control of sympathetic nerves and epinephrine in blood.
False
True or false: The axillary veins drain blood from the arms, axillae, and upper part of the chest wall.
True
True or false: An increase in vascular resistance increases blood pressure.
True
True or false: When blood pressure increases, the cardiovascular center responds by increasing parasympathetic stimulation and decreasing sympathetic stimulation.
True
True or false: Tachycardia indicates a slow resting pulse (heart rate) under 60 beats/min.
False
True or false: The greater the diameter of the lumen of a blood vessel, the lower the resistance to blood flow through that vessel.
True
True or false: In adult human circulation, the pulmonary veins carry blood that is more oxygenated than blood in the pulmonary arteries.
True
True or false: The presence of plasma proteins (such as albumin) plays more of a role in creating capillary blood pressure than in producing blood colloid osmotic pressure.
False
True or false: A high red blood cell (RBC) count tends to increase viscosity of blood and increase systemic blood pressure.
True
Sensory receptors that monitor changes in the blood pressure to the brain are baroreceptors located where?
in the carotid arteries
The blood vessels that allow the exchange of nutrients, wastes, oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood and the tissues are located where?
in the capillaries
The ability of a tissue to adjust it's blood flow is called what?
autoregulation
Blood flows through the blood vessels because of the establishment of what?
a pressure gradient
What represents pulmonary circulation as the blood flows from the right ventricle?
pulmonary trunk → pulmonary arteries → pulmonary capillaries → pulmonary veins
Supplying additional fat tissue with blood may raise blood pressure because of an increase in what?
total vessel length
What is composed of a single layer of endothelium and a basment membrane?
capillaries
What is formed by reuniting capillaries?
venules
What carries blood away from the heart?
arteries
What are the medium-sized vessels capable of high degree of vasoconstriction and vasodialation called?
muscular arteries
Veins may contain what?
valves
Elastic arteries are very stretchable and able to do what?
recoil
What regulates the blood flow in the capillaries?
the arterioles
Filteration of substances out of capillaries occurs when the capillary blood pressure is _______ and blood colloid osmotic pressure is ______.
high, low
Which hormones have opposite effects on blood pressure?
ADH (antidiuretic hormone) and ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide)
True or false: Walls of arteries are generally thicker and contain more elastic tissue than walls of veins.
True
Blood flows slowly through the capillaries to permit what to occur between the blood and body cells?
efficient exchange of nutrients an wastes
The volume of a homogeneous fluid passing per unit time through a capillary tube is directly proportional to the pressure difference between its ends and to the fourth power of its internal radius, and inversely proportional to its length and to the viscosity of the fluid describes what law?
Poiseuille's law
What is the source of all systemic arteries?
the aorta
What supplies a lower limb with blood?
the common iliac artery
The hearts blood system is called?
coronary circulation
What returns blood to the heart from the limbs?
inferior vena cava
What leads to the lungs?
the pulmonary trunk
What returns blood from the lungs to the heart?
the pulmonary vein
What supplies blood to the brain?
the cerebral arterial circle
What returns blood to the heart from the head and upper body?
superior vena cava
Will an increase in cardic output increase or decrease blood pressure?
increase it
Will hemorrhage increase or decrease blood pressure?
decrease it
Will vasodialation increase or decrease blood pressure?
decrease it
Will vasoconstriction increase or decrease blood pressure?
increase it
Will a stimulation of the heart by the sympathetic nervous system increase or decrease blood pressure?
increase it
Will hypoxia increase or decrease blood pressure?
increase it
Will epinephrine increase or decrease blood pressure?
increase it
Will a decrease in blood viscosity increase or decrease blood pressure?
decrease it
Will bradycardia increase or decrease blood pressure?
decrease it
Will an increase in blood volume increase or decrease blood pressure?
increase it
Aldosterone affects blood pressure by increasing reabsoption of what by the kidneys?
sodium ions and water
In a blood pressure reading of 110/70, the bottom number of 70 represents the pressure of the blood against the arteries during what?
ventricular relaxation
True or false: Regulation of blood vessel diameter originates from the hypothalamus.
False
Venous return to the heart is enhanced by which muscle pump?
the skeletal muscle pump
Venous return to the heart is enhanced by the pressure difference from venules to what?
the right ventricle