NC Pearson General curriculum multi subject
Terms in this set (167)
Fifteenth and Sixteenth century Europe
-Uprising of criticism of organized religion because of the invention of the printing press and the widespread printing of the bible in the vernacular and not in Latin
-Renaissance: 1) women became better educated and started writing and becoming artists 2) realism in painting
-Humanist period of thought
The way in which words are put together to form phrases
The study of the meaning of individual words
study of speech, sound, and lexicon. systematic use of sound to encode meaning in any spoken human language.
the vocabulary of language
biographical approach to literacy
assessed in a historical context and connections are made between author, the work, and various actions and events unique to their personal history
Elizabethan age in England
-The Elizabethan era of Queen Elizabeth I's reign (1558-1603)
-golden age in English history "English renaissance"
-plays reflect Greek tragedy appealing to general public - not focused on politics, religion, social, or ideologistic themes
Pindar's Olympian i
choral ode to a Sicilian ruler, it is a "lyric"
based on classical greek tragedy, based on the myth of jason and medea
classical greek tragedy - The play expands on the Theban legend that predated it and picks up where Aeschylus' Seven Against Thebes ends.
Homer's The Odyssey
The first "epic" style greek tragedy written - story of Odysseus a greek soldier journeying back to his home after the Trojan War
dramatic form "the comedy"
amuse or delight the audience and the action in a comedy ends happily
represents abstract concepts as characters
anticipate action or event that is likely to occur by referring to it delicately or indirectly
breaks from the action of a play and lets a character speak to him or herself in an undertone or to the audience directly without the other characters hearing
supernatural or godlike beings tend to explain how something came to exist
contains some element of magic like charms or spells
description of outlandish or highly improbable actions or events - related to fairy tale
comparison using like or as
emphasis, exaggeration, or overstatement
describes a subject by asserting that it is, on some point of comparison, the same as another otherwise unrelated object
Nineteenth century women's movement vs. twentieth century women's movement
twentieth century women were much more likely to challenge the misconception that women had to chose between being a mom and working. 19thers would not marry instead.
- Both movements focused on expanding educational opportunities for women, demanding voting rights, and sought to establish union like organizations for support
purpose of articles of confederation
Even when not yet ratified, the Articles provided domestic and international legitimacy for the Continental Congress to direct the American Revolutionary War, conduct diplomacy with Europe and deal with territorial issues and Indian relations.
purpose of U.S. Constitution
provided for a much stronger national government with a chief executive (the president), courts, and taxing powers.
making territorial govenments in the west
California Gold Rush
1848-1850 when discovery of cold in california people flocked the territory, substantially increasing the population
Railroad construction in the U.S.
linked California to the eastern regions opened in 1869
The Mexican War
armed conflict between the United States of America and Mexico from 1846 to 1848 in the wake of the 1845 U.S. annexation of Texas, which Mexico considered part of its territory despite the 1836 Texas Revolution.
Chinese immigration to the U.S.
Lured by the news of gold but only formed a small fraction of the population growth during the gold rush
Red Scare in the U.S.
after WWII - claim that large number of communist had secured positions in various government agencies, particularly the state departmnet
U.S. following WWII
Economic boom in the early 70's
Senator Joseph McCarthy
Republican - Wisconsin - wanted to increase federal governments authority to limit the civil rights of U.S. citizens
During the presidential administrations of Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson, and Franklin D. Roosevelt, the govenment enacted a wide reform measuring dealing with abuses of corporate power, labor rights, unemployment, farm poverty. Believed Government should be used to correct social problems like inequalities of wealth distribution and immigration
The New Deal
The New Deal was a series of economic programs enacted in the United States between 1933 and 1936. They involved presidential executive orders or laws passed by Congress during the first term of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The programs were in response to the Great Depression, and focused on what historians call the "3 Rs": Relief, Recovery, and Reform. That is, Relief for the unemployed and poor; Recovery of the economy to normal levels; and Reform of the financial system to prevent a repeat depression.[
purpose of democratic government
promote general welfare by protecting individual liberties, supporting education, and providing for those in need.
Purpose of Bureaucratic initiatives
Enhance the operation of the government
Speaker of the House
Presiding officer over the house of representatives, and is second in line of succession of president
It has ultimate (and largely discretionary) appellate jurisdiction over all federal courts and over state court cases involving issues of federal law, and original jurisdiction over a small range of cases. The Court, which meets in the United States Supreme Court Building in Washington, D.C., consists of a chief justice and eight associate justices who are nominated by the President and confirmed by the United States Senate. Once appointed, justices have life tenure unless they resign, retire, or are removed after impeachment.
The cabinet is made up of the heads of the 15 major department of the executive branch of government . The vice-president and UN ambassador are sometimes included. The departments of state, justice, treasury, defense and perhaps homeland security
The legislative branch (or Congress) is divided into two parts called the House of Representatives and the Senate. These two bodies must both approve any laws before Congress passes them. Congress also has the power to impeach the president if it so chooses.
people themselves - not their representative- enact laws and make all major governmental decisions
things (property, for example) are owned by people or an individual, not by a government or communities, and where people have to work for money, so they can buy things they need or want, such as food. Capitalism mostly has a "free market" economy, which means people buy and sell things by their own judgment.
Role of grand jury
review evidence presented by prosecutor to determine whether there is probable cause in a criminal case to bring an indictment and take the case to trial
Began in Great Britain in 1830 characterized by developments in textiles, iron and steam led by Britain, to differentiate it from a 'second' revolution of the 1850s onwards, characterized by steel, electrics and automobiles led by the US and Germany.
Early civilization of Mesoamerica
-mesoamericans relied on corn, beans, and squash for protein.
-Did not domesticate animals
-used mild metal tools for imporvemnets
-used long distance trade networks
Early civilization of Near East and China
-relied on wheat, rice, millet, barley, and lentils for protein.
-did domesticate animals
-make extensive use of metal tools
-used long distance trade networks
separation of tasks within a system
process by which ideas, products, abd innovative practices spead over a geographical area
relationships in which two or more groups or societies are dependent upon one another
process by which a culture group adopts the traits of a host society to which it has immigrated
Connecticut river valley
Annual flooding gives it rich soils, created over millenia, making it known as the most productive agricultural region in MA. Recieves more rainfall than anywhere else
Hilly mountains region with limited lains
Human dispersity across the globe
most people live between 20-60 degrees north latitude where the climate is mild.
-vertical line extending fro the North Pole to the South Pole and passes through England Spain and W. Africa
-represents 0 degrees longitude
-starting point for measuring longitude east and west of the line which is of vital importance for navigation and geopositioning
horizontal line extending through the center of the globe representing 0 degrees latitude
180 degree meridian
-used to demarcate the Eastern and Western hemispheres
natural bvody of water situated between Worchester and Shrewsbury in central MA - used primarily for recreation purposes
largest body of water in MA and is a mjaor physical feature and source of water for Boston and 40 other comunities in the Greater Boston area
formed as a flood control measure by damming of the East Branch of the Westfield river in Hungington MA
in Middlesex county did supply water to Boston for many years but was not formed for that purpose
-rod-shaped organelles that provide cells and thus the body with energy
-site of cellular respiration in which substances, primarily gluclose, are converted in the presence of oxygen to adenosine triphosphate ATP which provides energy for cellular activites
process by which plants, and some other organisms, use solar energy to convert water H20 and carbon dioxide C02 into surgars that can be used to proivde energy to cells. This process gives off oxygen as a waste product
eukaryotic cells with complex structures within membranes that separate interior and exterior of the cells. Contains a cytoplasm with cell membranes as well as ribosomes that make proteins from amino acids
same as animal except it has a rigid cell wall outside the cell membrane that provides structural support and protection to the cell
results from adaptation of organisms to a pesticide are likely to survive and pass on that genetic trait to their offspring
happens during the formation of molecular compounds through covalent and ionic bonding
transfer of electrons between molecules
sharing of electrons between molecules
when salt is dissolved in water
it forms sodium and choloride ions that beocme essentially surrounded by water molecules. The volume of water does not increase but the mass of the solution increases which also increases density
weight - physics
force created when a mass is acted upon by gravity
momentum - physics
product of mass and velocity - not related to inertia
mass - physics
both a measure of quantity of matter in an object and a measure of an objects resistance to changing its state of motion when acted upon by an outside force
acceleration - physics
rate of an objects change in velocity over time
Isaac Newton's law of inertia
states than an object will continue in its state of rest or motion unless acted upon by an outside force
temperature - physics
measure of the average kinetic movement energy of the molecules in a substnace. At higher temperatures molecules move faster
evaporation and precipitation - physics
evaporation is a cooling process while precipitation is a heating process. The total amount of atmospheric water vapor remains relatively constant, meaning that precipitation amounts offset water vapor added by evaporation and transipitation
weathering of rocks in northeasters U.S.
The cycling freezing and thawing f water that has seeped into fractures in rock outcrops is known as frost wedging. This is a major agent pf physical weathering in cold climates. As water freezed it expands and increased the size of the fracture, eventually helping break the rock apart over many years
occurs when the moon passes between the sun and earth and all three are on the same plane, causing the sun to seeminingly disappear and the daytime sky to darken.
vernal or autumnal equinox
when the moon's orbit is closets to the earth
The summer solstice occurs exactly when the axial tilt of a planet's semi-axis in a given hemisphere is most inclined towards the star that it orbits.
order of the planets
-similar in size to the earth
-rotates very slowly
-dense atmosphere of most carbon dioxide
-third largest planet
-thick atmosphere that absorbs red-light, making the planet appear blue
-atmosphere made mostly of helium and hydrogen
-mass is 1/10 that of the earth
-thin atmosphere that is 95% carbon dioxide
Annie Jump Cannon
early twentieth century astronomer who catalouged the spectra of over 225,000 stars. Her most significant contribution to society was carefully categorized spectra of light emmitted from stars, allowing others who followed to build off her work
development of integrated circuits
developed in 1950 and replaced vacuum tubes led most directly to the development of smaller faster and less expensive computers and devices like cell phones
developed taxonomy for classifying organisms and is known as the foundation for modern biological nomenclature
led to a fundamental shift in thinking about the place of humans in the universe. He first proposed the heliocentric model of the solar system where the planets revolve around the sun
securing the validity of scientific experiments
improve reliability of the results of an investigation by repeating an experiment several times and recording differences in the data
Battle of Yorktown
led by George Washington and cornwall
The Epic - literary style
narrative poem that chronicles on a grand scale the adventures of a heroic figure, who is often a warrior
the word to which the pronoun refers. The pronoun must agree with its antecedent in number and person.
an epic is a long narrative poem that chronicles on a grand scales the adventures of a heroic figure who is often a warrior.
can be used to alter the perception or experience of facts or objects describing them in terms of something else that is otherwise unrelated
the attribution of human nature or character to animals, inanimate objects, or abstract notions, especially as a rhetorical figure.
Giving a wild animal in a story a human name is an example of personification .
repeating certain words creates a sense of urgency and..
1848-1850 increased population in california from 1,000 to 25,000 people. It also lured chinese immigrants.
linked California to eastern regions of the country in 1869
warm mid-latitiude climate
75% of population lives here. between 20-60 degrees North latitude.
The rigid outermost cell layer found in plants and certain algae, bacteria, and fungi but characteristically absent from animal cells.
The protoplasm outside the nucleus of a cell.
The protoplasm of a cell contained within the cell membrane but excluding the nucleus: contains organelles, vesicles, and other inclusions
a tiny, somewhat mitten-shaped organelle occurring in great numbers in the cell cytoplasm either freely, in small clusters, or attached to the outer surfaces of endoplasmic reticula, and functioning as the site of protein manufacture
The cell membrane or plasma membrane is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment. The cell membrane is selectively permeable to ions and organic molecules and controls the movement of substances in and out of cells. basic function of the cell membrane is to protect the cell from its surroundings.
describes how an organism or population responds to the distribution of resources and competitors (e.g., by growing when resources are abundant, and when predators, parasites and pathogens are scarce) and how it in turn alters those same factors (e.g., limiting access to resources by other organisms, acting as a food source for predators and a consumer of prey).
(physics) the tendency of a body to maintain is state of rest or uniform motion unless acted upon by an external force
the mechanical breakup of rock caused by the expansion of freezing water in cracks and crevices
a microelectronic computer circuit incorporated into a chip or semiconductor
Cells, usually made of specially-treated silicon, that transfer solar energy from the sun to electrical energy
Offer no resistance to the conduction of electrical current
brought standardization to English with the introduction on the printing press.
Early Modern English (what years?)
during this time the english language changed tremendously.
The great vowel shift
a phonetic shift in the way that long vowels were pronounced in English
invented the printing press in 1450
wanted to describe language as it existed
wanted to prescribe how language ought to be
Samuel Johnson's "The Dictionary of the English Language"
The first writer to include quotations from other noteworthy authors to illustrate definitions. Took 9 years to write his famous dictionary, which become the foundation of all subsequent dictionaries.
scholars who study languages
the identification, analysis, and description of the structure of words.
a Morpheme is the smallest structural unit with meaning.
a lexeme is the different forms a phoneme can take; sit, sat, sitting, are all forms of the same lexeme.
words that are spelled the same but differ in pronunciation and meaning. ex: tear-crying tear-rip
word from which another word is developed.
ex: symbol is the root word of symbolic
the breaking down of words into each uninterrupted unit of spoken language.
units that stand alone like ditch and dog or can appear with other lexemes like dog house.
appear with other morphemes to form a lexeme. These are usually suffixes and prefixes. Example un, able, non. ex: unhappy
add to a word to create another word. ex: add "ment" to state to create statement. These morphemes carry semantic information.
change the function of a word, such as in number, tense, etc. creating a new word. example: add "s" to cat to create the plural cats or ed to hint to create the past tense hinted. inflectional morphemes carry grammatical information.
variants of the same morpheme. ex: the sound denoting the past tense can be "t" "d" or "td"
the first element of a prepositional phrase. to, of, from, under, above, around, through, with, in..and many other word. These words indicate the relationship between the other parts of the sentence and the prepositional object. Prepositions can modify verbs and nouns and compliment verbs, nouns, adjectives, and other prepositions. Example: Let's ban Max FROM our room.
formal poems that reflect on death or other solemn, serious themes
a song or song-like poem that tells a story - usually a tragedy or adventure. Most were passed down orally.
For And Nor But Or Yet So
any medium used to disseminate ideas, language, and thoughts
a rhyming sound that is not exact. example: stress/kiss. NOT CAT/BAT
a word at the end of one line rhymes with a word at the end of another line
when two words in the same line rhyme
ex: I went to town to buy a gown. / I took the car and it wasn't far.
Rhyme that falls on the stressed and concluding syllables of the rhyme-words. Examples include "keep" and "sleep," "glow" and "no," and "spell" and "impel."
Bill of rights
The first ten amendments of the U.S. Constitution, containing a list of individual rights and liberties, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press.
A relationship in which one organism is harmed and the other is unaffected. Not necessarily in contact with eachother.
energy displayed in a moving mass
Positively charged particles
The particles of the nucleus that have no charge
negatively charged particles
the smallest unit of matter that has the characteristics of an element; consists of three main types of subatomic particles: protons neutrons and electrons.
a particle that is electrically charged (positive or negative)
separation of powers
A feature of the Constitution that requires each of the three branches of government—executive, legislative, and judicial—to be relatively independent of the others so that one cannot control the others. Power is shared among these three institutions.
coercive acts/intolerable acts
This series of laws were very harsh laws that intended to make Massachusetts pay for its resistance. It also closed down the Boston Harbor until the Massachusetts colonists paid for the ruined tea. Also forced Bostonians to shelter soilders in their own homes.
a noun that renames or clarifies the noun next to it. It must always be separated by commas. Example: Chess, the ancient game of strategy, is one of the world's most popular games.
modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb
The girl is breathing HEAVILY.
the, an, a
a word that precedes a noun to indicate the type of reference or meaning made by the noun.
two words that work to coordinate two words or phrases. example: BOTH christine AND colleen hope to be doctors.
introduce and connect a dependent clause. they include after, although, if, unless, so, that, therefore, because. Example: you cannot have dessert UNLESS you eat your dinner.
refers to a mistake made by an author who places a modifier in a sentence so that it seems to modify a different word than intended. Ex: I saw the electronics store WALKING THROUGH THE MALL.
it is SO sunny outside!
Clutching the coin, Maria ran to the shops. She went straight to the counter
and bought the sweets.
("She" is a pronoun. In this example, it replaces the noun "Maria". Pronouns
are used for brevity. Imagine how wearisome a long prose would be if the writer used the full noun (in this case "Maria") every time.)
states, declares, describes, or defines. ends with a period. EX: Hannah likes icecream. (this sentence states a simple fact about Hannah.
asks a question. In interrogative sentence ends with a question mark.
ex: What does Hannah like to eat? (this sentence asks what hannah likes to eat)
exclaims or shows excitement. ends with an ! Hannah absolutely loves icecream!
poses a command. a verb often begins. can end with a period or exclamation. ex: Please step up to the plate. Eat your ice cream right now!
a sentence that has one subject and one predicate. another term is independent clause. "independent" because it can stand alone and make sense. Ex: Mary sells seashells by the seashore. Mary is the subject. "sells seashells by the seashore" is the predicate.
two simple sentences or independent clauses that are joined by a conjunction. conjunctions include and, but, or , nor, for, yet, so. ex: Agatha peeled the veggies and josh bbqed the burgers.
has an independent clause joined by one or more dependent clauses. a clause is "dependent" because it cannot stand alone and depends on the independent clause to complete its meaning. a complex sentence always has a subordinating conjunction such as because, since, after, although, or, when or a relative pronoun such at that, who, or which. Ex: Kelly is studying all night because she must pass the exam. "kelly is studying all night" is the independent clause. "because she must pass the exam " is the dependent clause.
Has both a compound sentence and a dependent clause. Ex: Ben brought his sister to soccer and his brother bought groceries, after their parents told them to assume more responsibilities.
1765 taxed all legal documents and newspapers and was met with great uproar in the colonies. was repealed a year later.
Boston Tea Party
1773 an act of revolt against british and their tax on tea.
philosophy that emphasized the truth to be found in nature and intuition
1760-1865 (aka american renaissance)
by 1860 20 new states had entered the union. american began moving westward (manifest destiny) this period saw the emergence of early American folktales and a distinctly American style of writing. Transcendalism emerged. Major writers: Thoreau, Emerson, Hawthorne, Melville.