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Element of Art

line, shape, form, color, texture, value, proportion


creates a shape, can be thick or thin, creates texture


is flat, 2-d, is an enclosed line, can be organic or geometric


has depth, 3-D, forms are solid objects


has 3 properties, color-Hue or Chroma, value(black/white/gray), Intensity(bright vs. dull)


rough or smooth, implied or real


dark and light, in color, in drawing and in design


size differences

Area of Emphasis

a special section or place in the format, The aesthetic center of interest is not in the middle but uses the division of thirds. Also called the center of interest, focal point.

Directional Movement

leads your eye through the format and to the area of emphasis by using a rhythmic overlay of shapes, color or values.


the position of shapes, colors and values that work well with each other and help to produce directional movement


the use of common elements throughout the format so that one area is not left without some of these elements. Color, values, textures, objects can be balanced.

Variety of size

the variation of elements so as not to cause monotony

The basic forms

Cube, sphere, cone, cylinder, Pyramid and Prism. All of the objects and things in the world can be simplified to these forms. This is how you can draw more complicated forms by looking at the basic forms with in the objects and how they are constructed.

Contour Drawing

the one continual line that describes the outside edge of an object. Thick and thin line produce variety.


a gradual change between dark and light in drawing and painting. This can be created with a pencil by changing the pressure on the paper and by using small circular movements. A KNEADED eraser can soften the edge of a gradation by lifting graphite from the paper.

Color Pencil

the colored pencil can be blended with soft layers to produce new colors. A graduation can be made by overlapping soft layers of two colors.


hue or Chroma, the color of color

Primary colors

red, yellow, and blue


green, violet, and orange





Chromatic Scale-Color wheel

12 colors/24 colors

Color chart 2

Intensity/complementary pairs/neutrals


the complement of a color is located directly across the color wheel from another. Every color has a complement and every complementary pair has a warm color and a cool color.


color comes to us as bright as it can be naturally, to dull the color you must add it's complement. The complementary color reduces the intensity of a color causing it to be dull and takes away it's chroma.


the neutral is a combination of a complementary pair and has no hue or chroma. It is called browns and is the source of a more natural color in nature. It can also be used to create shadows.

Color chart 3


Black and White

are not colors, black is the absence of all color, white is the presence of all color.

Value scale

the gradual change from white to black showing all the grays.

Monochromatic scale

the addition of white and black to a color to produce TINTS (add white) and Shades (add black) of one color.

Stylized design

a mode of design that simplifies the most important aspects of an object. Flattens to 2-d, shapes instead of forms.

Non-objective design

a mode of design that has no recognizable object but can be derived from a realistic object with a finder.

Pen and Ink

drawing styles of pen and ink include Crosshatching, Dots, Directional lines, cross hair, and scumbling. The closer the lines or dots are together the darker the area will become. You can use any combination of lines to produce a drawing. Always start with the darkest area first.

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