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Chem Chap 9 Chemical Names and Formulas
Terms in this set (60)
ions that consist of a single atom with a positive or negative charge from the loss/gain of valence electrons
What do ionic compounds consist of?
a positive metal ion and a negative nonmetal ion combined so their net charge is zero (0)
How can you determine the charges of cations?
-Groups 1A, 2A, 3A lose electrons/ form cations
How can you determine the charges of anions?
-charge of any ion of a Group A nonmetal is determined by subtracting 8 from the group number
How can you determine the charges of metals that form more than one ion?
-charges of the cations of many transition metal ions must be determined from the number of electrons lost
What happens to the name of the anion in ionic compounds?
Anion names start with the stem of the element name and end in "-ide"
Ex. Fluorine to fluoride
Chlorine to chloride
What are the two methods used to name the metals that form more than one ion?
Stock system & Classical system
-place Roman numeral in parentheses after the name of the element to indicate the numerical value of the charge
Ex. Iron produces two cations:
Fe^2+ which is iron(ii) ion
Fe^3+ which is iron(iii) ion
-older, less useful
-uses a root word with different suffixes at the end of the word
-suffix "-ous" is used to name cation with lower of two ionic charges
-suffix "-ic" is used to name cation with higher of two ionic charges
Ex. Iron is "ferrum" in Latin.
Fe^2+ is ferrous ion
Fe^3+ is ferric ion
What is a major disadvantage of using the classical system?
-does not tell you the actual charge of the ion
-only states whether it is the smaller or larger charge
Name the ion formed by the element: potassium
named: potassium ion
Name the ion formed by: lead, 4 electrons lost
Pb^4+ is a cation
lead (iv) or plumbic ion
Name the ion formed by: sulfur
S^2- is an anion
How do polyatomic ions differ from monatomic ions?
unlike a monoatomic ion, a polyatomic ion is composed of more than one atom
How are polyatomic ions alike with monatomic ions?
like a monoatomic ion, a polyatomic ion behaves like a unit and carries a charge
In naming polyatomic ions, what does the suffix "-ite" indicate?
"-ite" indicates one less atom than "-ate"
How do you determine the formula and name of a binary ionic compound?
first write the symbol of the cation and then the anion.
add subscripts as needed to balance the charges.
-composed of two elements
-can be ionic compounds or molecular compounds
-cation must balance anion so that the net ionic charge of the formula is zero
Which chemist recognized how disorganized the naming system was and strove to find a system?
French chemist Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier (1743-1794)
What is a great approach to writing a balanced formula for a compound?
the crisscross method: numerical value of the charge of each ion is crossed over and becomes the subscript of the other ion
Write a formula for the following binary ionic compound: copper (ii) sulfide
Cu^2+ and S^2-
CuS (the two charges add up to zero)
Write a formula for the following binary ionic compound: potassium nitride
K+ and N^3-
How do you write the name of any binary ionic compound?
place cation first, then the anion
ex. Cs2O is composed of metal cesium and nonmetal oxygen: cesium oxide
What do ya do if the metallic element in a binary ionic compound has more than one ionic charge?
if the metallic element in a binary ionic compound has more than one common ionic charge, a Roman numeral must be included in the cation name.
Name the binary ionic compound: CoI2
CoI2: cobalt cations and iodide anions
cobalt: 2 common cations (Co2+ and Co3+)
Iodide ion is I-
formula specifies 2 iodide ions which gives a charge of 2-
cobalt ion must be Co2+ to balance the charge
Name the binary ionic compound: Li2Se
Li2Se: lithium cations and selenide anions
lithium forms one cation: Li+
only has one charge
How do you determine the formula and name of a compound with a polyatomic ion?
write the symbol (or formula) for the cation followed by the symbol (or formula) for the anion. add subscripts as needed to balance the charges
What do ya do when more than one polyatomic ion is needed to balance charges in ionic compounds??
use parentheses to set off the polyatomic ion in the formula.
How do you named compound containing a polyatomic ion?
state cation name first and anion name.
if cation is a metallic element with more than one common charge, include a Roman numeral in the cation name.
Which types of ions end in -ide?
What is the correct name for the N^3- ion?
When naming a transition metal ion that can have more than one common ionic charge, the numerical value of the charge is indicated by a
Roman numeral following the name
Aluminum is a group 3A metal. What ion does Al typically form?
An "-ate" or "-ite" at the end of a compound name usually indicate that the compound contains
What has the Ms3+ ion?
Mn2O3 (remember crisscross!)
Which of the following represents an ionic compound?
Which element, when combined with fluorine, would most likely form an ionic compound?
What is the correct formula of an ionic compound and charge on the metal ion?
Name and formula correct?
stannic fluoride, SnF4
What contains the lead (ii) ion?
What chemical name and formula is correct?
tin(iv) bromide, SnBr4
Which chemical name and chemical formula for the same compound is correct?
iron (iii) phosphate, FePO4
Molecular compounds are usually composed of
two or more nonmetallic elements
Which represents a molecular compound?
What name and formula for acid is correct?
H3PO4, phosphoric acid
name of H2SO3?
name of anion ends in "-ite" includes this suffix in acid name
formula for sulfurous acid?
formula for phosphoric acid?
formula for hydrosulfuric acid?
correct name for compound CoCl2?
cobalt (ii) chloride
correct formula for barium chlorate?
correct formula for calcium dihydogen phosphate?
correct name for N2O5?
correct name for Sn3(PO4)2?
how many iron (ii) ions combine with oxygen to form iron (ii) oxide?
name of KCN?
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