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Chapters 14 - 18


belief in spiritual things


stories that recount the deeds of supernatural powers and cultural heroes in the past


organized, stereotyped, symbolic behaviors intended to influence supernatural

cognitive approach

the notion that religious beliefs provide explanations for puzzling things and events

psychological approach

the notion that the emotional or affective satisfactions people gain from religion are primary

sociological approach

the effects of religion on maintaining the institutions of society as a whole by instilling common values, creating solidarity, controlling behavior, and so forth


The perfomance of rites and spells for the purpose of causing harm to others by supernatural means


The use of psychic powers to harm others by supernatural means

individualistic organizations

religious organization based on personal relationships between specific individuals and specific supernatural powers

shamanistic organizations

religious organizations in which certain individuals (shamans) have relationships with supernatural powers that ordinary people lack

communal organizations

Religious organizations in which the members of a group cooperate to perform rituals intended to benefits all.

ecclesiastical organizations

Religious organizations in which a full-time priesthood performs rituals believed to benefits believers or the whole society usually in large building educated to religious purposes or deities; found in complex societies.

vision quest

The attempt to enlist the aid of supernatural powers by intentionally seeking a dream or vision


part-time relgious specialist who uses his special relationship to supernatural powers for curing members of of his group and harming members of other groups

ancestral rituals

Rituals the conscious purpose of which is to worship, honor, or beseech the deceased ancestors of a kin group


a form of communal religious organization in which which all members of a kin group have mystical relationships with on or moral natural objects


A kind of religious specialist, usually full-time, who officiates at large-scale, bureaucratically organized rituals that keep the population in proper relationship to deities or cosmic forces

revitalization movement

a religious movement explicitly intended to create a new way of life for a society or group

cargo cults

Melanesian revitalization movements in which prophets claim to know secret rituals that will bring wealth


Any human action that modifies the utilitarian nature of something for the primary purpose of enhancing its aesthetic qualities; or actions, objects, or words valued for their aesthetic pleasure or symbolic communication


Qualities that make objects, actions, or language more beautiful or pleasurable, according to culturally relative and variable standards

body arts

artificial artistic enhancement or beautification of the human body by painting, tattooing, scarification, or other means.

visual arts

Arts produced in material or tangible form, including basketry, pottery, textiles, paintings, drawings, sculptures, masks, carvings, and the like.

performance arts

Forms of art such as music, percussion, song, dance, and theater/drama that involve sound or stylized body movements


The process of integrating the world's people economically, socially, politically, and culturally into a single world system or community

global trade

The direct or indirect exchange of goods and products between peoples from all regions of the world

global economy

The buying and selling of goods and services in an integrated global market.

multinational corporation

a large corporation that produces and sells its goods and services in more than one country

ethnic group

A named social group based on perceptions of shared ancestry, cultural traditions, and common history that culturally distinguish that group from other groups

hierarchical nesting

Occurs when an ethnic group is part of a larger collection of ethnic groups, which together constitute a higher level of ethnic identity

origin myth

The collective history of an ethnic that defines which subgroups are part of it and its relationship to other ethnic groups

ethnic boundary markers

Any overt characteristics that can be used to indicate ethnic group membership


The creation of a new ethnic group


An ethnic group that claims a right to a discrete homeland and to political autonomy and self-determination


A geographical region over which a particular ethnic group feels it has exclusive rights


A dependent subgroup within a larger nationality that lacks the concept of a separate homeland and makes no claim to any inherent right to political autonomy and self-determination


Members of an ethnic community living outside their country of origin


a form of complex society in which many people live in cities

artificial countries

Multinationality countries created by external powers; usually applied to former colonies

ethnic homogenization

The attempt to create a single ethnic group in a particular geographical region

ethnic cleansing

the elimination of an unwanted ethnic group or groups from a society, as by genocide or forced emigration.


The deliberate attempt to eliminate the membership of an ethnic category or cultural tradition.


The forced removal of the members of a particular ethnic group from one geographical region to another


The merging of the members of one ethnic group into another, with the consequent abandonment of the former group's identity

forced assimilation

The social absorption of one ethnic group by another group through the use of force

passive assimilation

The voluntary social absorption of one ethnic group by another ethnic group


the enforced separation of ethnic groups, in which the dominant ethnic groups places legal restrictions on the actions of the members


The creation of social and political systems that provide for and support ethnic group differences.

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