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48 terms

Anthropology Key Terms

Chapters 14 - 18
STUDY
PLAY
animism
belief in spiritual things
myths
stories that recount the deeds of supernatural powers and cultural heroes in the past
ritual
organized, stereotyped, symbolic behaviors intended to influence supernatural
cognitive approach
the notion that religious beliefs provide explanations for puzzling things and events
psychological approach
the notion that the emotional or affective satisfactions people gain from religion are primary
sociological approach
the effects of religion on maintaining the institutions of society as a whole by instilling common values, creating solidarity, controlling behavior, and so forth
sorcery
The perfomance of rites and spells for the purpose of causing harm to others by supernatural means
witchcraft
The use of psychic powers to harm others by supernatural means
individualistic organizations
religious organization based on personal relationships between specific individuals and specific supernatural powers
shamanistic organizations
religious organizations in which certain individuals (shamans) have relationships with supernatural powers that ordinary people lack
communal organizations
Religious organizations in which the members of a group cooperate to perform rituals intended to benefits all.
ecclesiastical organizations
Religious organizations in which a full-time priesthood performs rituals believed to benefits believers or the whole society usually in large building educated to religious purposes or deities; found in complex societies.
vision quest
The attempt to enlist the aid of supernatural powers by intentionally seeking a dream or vision
shaman
part-time relgious specialist who uses his special relationship to supernatural powers for curing members of of his group and harming members of other groups
ancestral rituals
Rituals the conscious purpose of which is to worship, honor, or beseech the deceased ancestors of a kin group
totemism
a form of communal religious organization in which which all members of a kin group have mystical relationships with on or moral natural objects
priest
A kind of religious specialist, usually full-time, who officiates at large-scale, bureaucratically organized rituals that keep the population in proper relationship to deities or cosmic forces
revitalization movement
a religious movement explicitly intended to create a new way of life for a society or group
cargo cults
Melanesian revitalization movements in which prophets claim to know secret rituals that will bring wealth
art
Any human action that modifies the utilitarian nature of something for the primary purpose of enhancing its aesthetic qualities; or actions, objects, or words valued for their aesthetic pleasure or symbolic communication
aesthetic
Qualities that make objects, actions, or language more beautiful or pleasurable, according to culturally relative and variable standards
body arts
artificial artistic enhancement or beautification of the human body by painting, tattooing, scarification, or other means.
visual arts
Arts produced in material or tangible form, including basketry, pottery, textiles, paintings, drawings, sculptures, masks, carvings, and the like.
performance arts
Forms of art such as music, percussion, song, dance, and theater/drama that involve sound or stylized body movements
globalization
The process of integrating the world's people economically, socially, politically, and culturally into a single world system or community
global trade
The direct or indirect exchange of goods and products between peoples from all regions of the world
global economy
The buying and selling of goods and services in an integrated global market.
multinational corporation
a large corporation that produces and sells its goods and services in more than one country
ethnic group
A named social group based on perceptions of shared ancestry, cultural traditions, and common history that culturally distinguish that group from other groups
hierarchical nesting
Occurs when an ethnic group is part of a larger collection of ethnic groups, which together constitute a higher level of ethnic identity
origin myth
The collective history of an ethnic that defines which subgroups are part of it and its relationship to other ethnic groups
ethnic boundary markers
Any overt characteristics that can be used to indicate ethnic group membership
ethnogenesis
The creation of a new ethnic group
Nationality
An ethnic group that claims a right to a discrete homeland and to political autonomy and self-determination
homeland
A geographical region over which a particular ethnic group feels it has exclusive rights
subnationalities
A dependent subgroup within a larger nationality that lacks the concept of a separate homeland and makes no claim to any inherent right to political autonomy and self-determination
transnationals
Members of an ethnic community living outside their country of origin
civilization
a form of complex society in which many people live in cities
artificial countries
Multinationality countries created by external powers; usually applied to former colonies
ethnic homogenization
The attempt to create a single ethnic group in a particular geographical region
ethnic cleansing
the elimination of an unwanted ethnic group or groups from a society, as by genocide or forced emigration.
genocide
The deliberate attempt to eliminate the membership of an ethnic category or cultural tradition.
relocation
The forced removal of the members of a particular ethnic group from one geographical region to another
assimilation
The merging of the members of one ethnic group into another, with the consequent abandonment of the former group's identity
forced assimilation
The social absorption of one ethnic group by another group through the use of force
passive assimilation
The voluntary social absorption of one ethnic group by another ethnic group
segregation
the enforced separation of ethnic groups, in which the dominant ethnic groups places legal restrictions on the actions of the members
accommodation
The creation of social and political systems that provide for and support ethnic group differences.