(MBHS) AP Human Geography - Chapter 11 Vocabulary
Terms in this set (41)
An extended city or town area comprising the built-up area of a central place (usually a municipality) and any suburbs linked by continuous urban area.
A manufacturing process (most of the time called a progressive assembly) in which parts (usually interchangeable parts) are added as the semi-finished assembly moves from workstation to work station where the parts are added in sequence until the final assembly is produced.
Industries that sell their products or services primarily to consumers outside the settlement.
A geographical economic theory that refers to how the price and demand for real estate change as the distance from the central business district (CBD) increases. It states that different land users will compete with one another for land close to the city center.
(p. 402) A location where transfer is possible from one mode of transportation to another.
Former commercial land with hazardous waste or pollution.
(p. 400) An industry in which the final product weighs more or comprises a greater volume than the inputs.
(p. 398) An industry in which the final product weighs less or comprises a lower volume than the inputs.
Assets available for use in the production of further assets
(p. 395) Manufacturing based in homes rather than factories, commonly found prior to the Industrial Revolution
A process of social and economic change caused by the removal or reduction of industrial capacity or activity in a country or region, especially heavy industry or manufacturing industry. It is the opposite of industrialization
economies of scale
The cost advantages that enterprises obtain due to size, output, or scale of operation, with cost per unit of output generally decreasing with increasing scale as fixed costs are spread out over more units of output. Often operational efficiency is also greater with increasing scale, leading to lower variable cost as well.
export processing zone
A geographic area where goods may be landed, handled, manufactured or reconfigured, and reexported without the intervention of the customs authorities.
A general term for an industry that can be placed and located at any location without effect from factors such as resources or transport. These industries often have spatially fixed costs, which means that the costs of the products do not change despite where the product is assembled.
(p. 422) A form of mass production in which each worker is assigned one specific task to perform repeatedly.
The dominant system of economic production, consumption and associated socio-economic phenomena, in most industrialized countries since the late 20th century. It is contrasted with Fordism, the system formulated in Henry Ford's automotive factories, in which workers work on a production line, performing specialized tasks repetitively.
gross domestic product (GDP)
A monetary measure of the value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly). Nominal GDP estimates are commonly used to determine the economic performance of a whole country or region, and to make international comparisons.
GDP per capita
GDP of a country divided by its population
A measure of income distribution of a nation's residents; the most commonly used measure of inequality.
An observation in economics that in many markets it is rational for producers to make their products as similar as possible.
A stage at which an industry prefers to run in its former location although the main alluring factors are gone. For example, the raw material source is depleted or an energy crisis has emerged.
(p. 395) A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.
The fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function.
international division of labor
(p. 420) Transfer of some types of jobs, especially those requiring low-paid, less-skilled workers, from more-developed (MDC) to less-developed or developing (LDC) countries.
(p. 408) An industry for which labor costs comprise a high percentage of total expenses.
Alfred Weber's theory of industrial location, explaining and predicting where industries will locate based on cost analysis of transportation, labor, and agglomeration factors. It emphasizes that firms seek a site of minimum transport and labor cost.
Addresses questions of what economic activities are located where and why.
A region where things are manufactured.
(p. 421) A factory built by a U.S. company in Mexico near the U.S. border, to take advantage of the much lower labor costs in Mexico.
The production of large quantities of a standardized article (often using assembly line techniques)
Industries that sell their products primarily to consumers in the community.
(p. 420) A decision by a corporation to turn over much of the responsibility for production to independent suppliers.
The portion of the economy concerned with the direct extraction of materials from Earth's surface, generally through agriculture, although sometimes by mining, fishing, and forestry.
Unprocessed materials extracted from the Earth's surface.
(p. 398) Location factors related to the costs of factors of production inside a plant, such as land, labor, and capital.
(p. 398) Location factors related to the transportation of materials into and from a factory.
The portion of the economy concerned with manufacturing useful products through processing, transforming, and assembling raw materials.
The maxim that processes, services and products should, wherever possible, be replaced with alternatives which have a lower impact on the environment.
(p. 410) A fabric made by weaving, used in making clothing.
A system of weights and pulleys used by geographers to help determine optimum location. For example, the weights might represent the relative cost of transporting particular goods to or from particular locations, to help a firm decide the most cost effective site to locate a prospective production facility.
Weber's Theory of Industrial Location
Least-cost theory PLUS the bulk-gaining versus bulk-reducing concepts.
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