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AP World History: Imperial/Empires Key Terms
Terms in this set (26)
Def: an Afrikaans-speaking person in South Africa, esp. one descended from the Dutch and Huguenot settlers of the 17th century; a member of the Dutch and Huguenot population that settled in southern Africa in the late 17th century. Fought in conflict against the British to retrain control over South Africa in the Boer War, also were earlier colonizers of the Cape Colony that fought against the Zulu population and move north into further territories
Sig: They helped to fight against the British and that war led to the retaining of control over South Africa.
Def: seek Independence from the Ottoman Empire; Nationalism; Devshirme and local religious rule create feelings of nationalist political identity; Greeks independent in 1830; Austrians chip away along their border for more land; Economic difficulties mean no longer able to have large army of Ottoman Empire
Sig: Gave the population a better sense of nationalism and pride in their nation which led to some countries becoming independent or getting larger while fighting for land.
King Leopold II/Belgian Congo
Def: Leopold II was the King of the Belgians, and is chiefly remembered for the founding and exploitation of the Congo Free State
Sig: Congo free state led to harsher mistreatment to indigenous peoples and it gained infamy due to the increase.
Def: The Berlin Conference of 1884-85, also known as the Congo Conference" or West Africa Conference, regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period, and coincided with Germany's sudden emergence as an imperial power.
Sig: Helped regulate the European colonization and made sure that it did not get too out of control which could have led to war or uprisings.
Def: (1899-1901): Anti-Foreign/Christian Rebellion Nationalist movement against foreign Imperialism. Split support of Chinese gov't ; Declared war against "The Great Powers"—Europe, Japan, and US; Western troops invade ~20,000 and defeat imperial army; Mass destruction and atrocities upon defeat; Once again leads to increase in foreign involvement
Sig: Led to increase in foreign involvement and was against imperialism and did not like it so they declared wars against those who were imperializing.
Def: Company Rule: East India Company took advantage to strength positions in post cities; Company actually conquered territories and reduced Mughal rule; Small British army and large number of Indian troops (sepoys) helped keep control
Sepoy Mutiny:-Sepoys in British army offended by British refused to fight; In response sepoy regiments revolt in North and Central India with followers of those whose land was taken, who were disrupted by trade or missionary efforts, etc. ; Atrocities committed on both sides; British gain upper hand in 1857 against Sepoys but revolutionary fervor started
Imperial Rule: British government abolished the Mughal Empire & East India Company indirect rule; Direct Rule—Viceroy appointed by British monarch (Victoria) represented British rule; Administered colony through civil service staffed by Brits in upper positions & Indians through low level positions; Extended authority, restructured landholdings, encouraged cultivation of cash crops (tea, coffee, opium), built railroad & telephone network, canals, irrigation system
Sig: Different type of rulings and different types of outcomes showed the British what to do and what not to do.
Def: the policy or practice of acquiring full or partial political control over another country, occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it economically.—common in early exploration and creation of empires, but less common with New Imperialism as often done with indirect rule—ex. French in Algeria
Sig: Lead to more and more imperialism actions because more and more countries were colonizing, but they were colonizing on land that was already taken. So they started to imperialize the land that was already owned.
Def: Direct Control—foreign officials brought in to rule, no self rule, goal is assimilation of culture, government institutions are based on European styles, colonies and settler colonies common as well
as missionary work—ex. French
Sig: Lead to the assimilation of the culture of the natives. The officials did their job because it was ¨their job¨ to help the natives because they were being childish.
Def: Gained influence in Hawaii as part of the trade networks of the Pacific ocean, eventually create harbor and trading post for coal in the pacific, military base added when annexed into the US after fight for independence
Sig: Opened more trade routes and more harbors and a bigger distribution of items. It soon played a big part in WW2 for America.
Def: a policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force
Sig: Lead to many colonies and conflicts and especially mixture of culture or races. With imperialism, we see the gaining of land and more wars break out.
Def: Local officials ruled, limited self-rule, Goal: to develop future leaders, Government institutions are based on European styles but may have local rules.—ex. British
Sig: Thought to have led to better rulers for their country and that way the leaders would not be reliant on anything, they were self-sufficient and could solve problems by themselves.
Def: the 19th-century doctrine or belief that the expansion of the US throughout the American continents was both justified and inevitable.; Justifies the movement of the US as "imperialist" taking over the rest of the continental nation and of the pushing of the native American population further west or onto reservations
Sig: Gave belief to the American people who soon then did push through all they way to the Pacific Coast and ¨conquer¨ that land through imperialistic ideas and ways.
Def: The Meiji period, also known as the Meiji era, is a Japanese era which extended from September 1868 through July 1912. This period represents the first half of the Empire of Japan during which Japanese society moved from being an isolated feudal society to its modern form.Country opened (forcibly) by Americans to trade—Matthew Perry in 1854—Treaty of Kanagawa New Gov't—Meiji Restoration Quickly modernize and industrialize—old Japan v. new Japan—abolish Samurai
Sig: Opened up a new trading partner and because it was now open, it was modernized rather quickly.
Def: frequent conflicts with west—Opium War, Taiping Rebellion, Boxer Rebellion; conflict between traditional & new idea
Sig: Made many conflicts that affected the future of the country by making laws or challenging leaders.
Def: an American foreign policy opposing interference in the western hemisphere from outside powers, reinforced American imperialistic goals in the "New World" especially in Cuba with removal of Spain and the influence in Panama
Sig: Tried to stop outside powers from attacking the US while they were trying to expand and imperialize without much conflict.
Def: Opium Wars: Series of conflicts concerning trade and diplomatic relations between Qing China and British Empire Opium introduced as mixed with tobacco for smoking by the Europeans in 17th century 1830s—rise of opium trade by the British East India Trading Company from India Creation of colonies dependent on each other!Drain of silver from China and growing addicts leads to conflict, Demanded that Britain stop sending opium and dump opium into harbor, In response, Britain demands compensation and sails ships into Canton harbor—Leads to defeat of Chinese and continued opium trade
Sig: China did not want to trade opium anymore, however they British then demanded more and wanted compensation and defeated the China which then lead to the continuation of opium trade.
Def: a ship canal 40 miles long across the Isthmus of Panama built by the United States (1904-1914); results in influences in the Central American states, reduces travel time to Pacific ocean increasing trade
Sig: Made travel and trading much easier because you can sail any which way in any direction since there were no currents.
Def: Settler colonialism is a specific colonial formation whereby foreign family units move into a region and reproduce. An imperial power oversees the immigration of these settlers who consent, often only temporarily, to government by that authority. This colonization leads, by a variety means, to depopulation of the previous inhabitants, and the settlers take over the land left vacant by the previous residents. Unlike other forms of colonialism, the "colonizing authority" (the imperial power) is not always the same nationality as the "colonizing workforce" (the settlers) in cases of settler colonialism. The settlers are, however, generally viewed by the colonizing authority as racially superior to the previous inhabitants, giving their social movements and political demands greater legitimacy than those of colonized peoples in the eyes of the home government.
Sig: Led to imperialism without conflict by slowly repopulating in different areas where the race is not dominant. When settled, they soon creep their cultures and ideas into that society.
Def: Only territory to remain outside of European control (Modern Thailand)—mainly because European officials viewed it as a buffer between French & British territories
Sig: Was not able to be conquered and never really was wanted to be conquered because the French and British saw it as a smart idea to be away from each other rather than be on each others borders.
Def: 19th century philosophy that attempted to apply Darwinism "survival of the fittest" to the social and political realm; adherents saw the elimination of weaker nations as part of a natural process and used the philosophy to justify war
Sig: Led to belief (especially while imperilizing) that if they were there long enough and that if they slipped their culture into the natives lives and ways, they would soon become the dominate race.
Def: Taiping Rebellion: (1850-1864) Conflict against Manchu Qing Dynasty by Taiping group in Southern China; Christian group believed that needed to have social equality, remove influence of Buddhism and corrupted Manchus from power; Taiping gain influence in Middle Class Chinese Europeans send some troops to help Qing; Qing defeat of Taiping—Results in: Deaths of 20-30 million troops and civilians, Increased European influence in China
Sig: Due to the decrease in troops and civilians in China, Europe was able to increase their influence throughout the Asian countries.
The Self-Strengthening Movement
Def: Push following multiple defeats to establish sense of power of the Chinese state; Adopt western technology and industrialization; Create customs to control ports; Construction of military technology—especially navy; Largely uninterested in social reforms; Leads to some regional conflicts and issues of progressives v. conservatives
Sig: Led to regional conflicts and and modernized because of the conflicts.
The White Australia Policy
Def: The term White Australia Policy comprises various historical policies that intentionally favored immigration to Australia from certain European countries, and especially from Britain. It came into fruition with the Federation in 1901, and the policies were progressively dismantled between 1949 and 1973.
Sig: Caused more and more white people to move to Australia and populate their area because it was their ¨Duty¨ to civilize and help the ¨childish¨ natives.
Rudyard Kipling/The White Man's Burden
Def: the task that white colonizers believed they had to impose their civilization on the black inhabitants of their colonies. Poem written by Rudyard Kipling, "White Man's Burden" portrays a different view of imperialism than we tend to think of today. In many ways, the viewpoint that Kipling portrays praises imperialism as a necessary evil. (In fact, President Theodore Roosevelt called imperialism a "manly virtue.") As you read this, remember that we need to look at this document in light of the time that it was written (around the time of the Spanish-American War) and not from a modern day context.
Sig: Led to white people to look down on natives and darker-skinned peoples because they were viewed as childish and devilish.
Def: Czars as Absolute "Orthodox" rulers in Russia—resist change, want to stay in power Quick Industrialization—leads to problems!Loss of Russo-Japanese War, Bloody Sunday Massacre,etc.=People generally unhappy Serfdom until 1861: Few options after free because don't own land or have $, prevents growth, peasants move to cities
Sig: People did not necessarily like Tsarist Russia but it was good for the government and it continued for a wihle.
Young Turk Movement
Def: Young Turks: wanted individual freedom, local authority and decentralization as well as pushed nationalist ideologies of the Turkish nation—language as Turkish etc.
Sig: Led to a Turkish nation and a country as a whole which then takes an important part in history.
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