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What right are guaranteed by the 1st Amendment to the Constitution?
takes care of the five most fundamental rights:
-freedom of religion: no established religion, or prohibiting religious practices not dealing with killing
-freedom of the press: cant harm by spoken slander or by written liable, can't yell fire in crowded building, cant do spoken treason like giving military secrets away (can be symbolic/expressive)
-freedom of speech
-freedom of assembly
-freedom to petition gov
List the provisions of Article 2 of the Constitution.
-the executive branch
-says vise pres/ assumes all powers of the pres. if he leaves office or dies
What rights are guaranteed by the 6th Amendment to the Constitution?
-requires police to tell the exact nature of the charges (Miranda Rights)
-guarantees the right to a trial-by-jury(can be waived for just a judge)
-right to speedy public trial(hard due to so many cases and high profile cases)
-guarantees the right to hear and question all witnesses
What is the difference between duties and responsibilities of the U.S. citizens? List as many as examples as you can find.
-duties are what one is required to do or one will get a penalty or fine
-responsibilities are what one should do, but no fine or penitently will be had if not done
-duties: taxes or IRS fine/jail by the 16th Amend, jury duty, follow laws(even if unfair), defend nation, go to school till 16 or parents will be fined
-responsibilities: loyal citizen, honor flag, be informed when vote, support family with no well-fare, be educated, vote, defend freedom of speech
Explain the role of third parties in American politics.
-they can splinter the votes in a 2 party campaign and bring new ideas of how to work gov, for ex. the populist party introduced direct election of senators, 8-hour work day, and work reforms
List reasons why people don't vote. What obstacles are there to voting?
-people are not allowed: to due to being in a mental institution, convicted of a serious crime, or moved to another state and didn't meet residency requirements(can do absentee voting by calling old state)
-people don't register in time
-main reason is voter apathy, they don't care
What is the function(s) of Political Action Committees (PACS)?
-the fundraising arm of sigs
-donate money to candidates to endorse their laws
-run ads to support candidate(can say things candidate usually wouldn't)
-can now donate unlimited $ but it was a max of 5k$ but SC changed it
What rights are guaranteed by the 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution?
-declares anyone born in U.S. a citizen
-right to due process on the citizen level
What are the advantages of a two-party system?
-not a range of ideas are expressed, but since the U.S. is a generalist population, the fundamentals are there
-less hectic elections
What is public opinion and how is it used?
-the attitudes of a large group of people for an issue/person
-this is extremely important to politicians to know what to give to the public
Explain how the Electoral College works.
-when on votes, it goes by popular vote to which electoral college will vote in representing the people of the state
-the number of electoral votes per state depends on the number of H Reps and senators a state has
-so for ex. Louisiana has 9 electoral votes, and if the popular vote wanted the democratic electoral to vote for them, then 9 democratic electorals for Louisiana vote
What are Grassroots Political Movements?
-lobbyist speak for the common man by looking at mail, and letters from the common man when thinking of a campagin
What are the effects of third parties on Presidential elections?
-may cause splinter voting to where one candidate looses some votes which can effect the results of the pres campaign
-may sway elections such as in 2000, Ralph Nader of the green pp. took votes from Al Gorge, leaving Bush to win the election
What is the purpose of congressional committees?
-Congress breaks into committees to work efficiently specifically when new bills/laws are being made
-it is a good way to do research
What are the duties of president?
-commander in chief
-leader of his political party
-chief of state
What are the responsibilities of the Executive Office of the President?
-people who work with the pres. and only advise him
What are the purposes of the Executive Departments?
-the 15 departments advise the pres. and MAKE policies and regulations and enforce them
What are the requirements to be President of the United States?
-be native born citizen of U.S.
-be over 35 years old
-lived in U.S. for 14 years
List the steps for Impeachment of government officials.
-starts in H Reps when they draw up a list of charges, and if majority of H Reps accept the charges, then it moves to the Senate
-the Senate act like a jury to the charges by calling witnesses and looking at evidence, if 2/3 of the Senate vote guilty, the pres. is removed from office
How long are the terms for the following:
-Supreme Court Justices
-Supreme Court Justice = life
-President = 4 years
-Senators = 6 years
-Representatives = 2 years
What are many of the criticisms of mandatory sentences?
-they violate the 8th amendment of cruel and unusual punishment, and often are bias
Explain the colonial boycott of British goods.
-the English boycotted the British goods due to King George's Stamp Act that made the colonists pay taxes
-King George later removed the Stamp Act but replaced it with the Intolerable Acts
-however the colonists continued to boycott the British goods up to their deceleration for independence
What is the purpose of the Deceleration of Independence?
-it informed King George the third that the colonists were planning a separation form Britain
Explain the recent shifts in U.S. population.
-between 1830-1930, nation grew 10 times larger due to many children needed to run a farm
-in mid-1800's many move from rural to cities
-in 1970's many move to west/south from the north due to looking for warmth
-recently many move out of cities to suburbs
How does a person become a citizen?
-takes up to 5 years
-first file a declaration of intention that states that you want to become a citizen
-wait five years after the declaration(three years if you're married) so that you have time to learn English, known the history, and civics of the U.S.
-after 3-5 years, file an application for naturalization with a fee of $675 and wait several months
-if the application is approved, you are given a test day to meet with the examiner
-if the test is passed, you will meet with a judge and swear your loyalty(children under age of 18 automatically become citizens)
List the compromises that were made during the Constitutional Convention.
-the great compromise
-the 3/5ths compromise
-the commerce and slave trade compromise
What are the differences between the Democratic and Republican parties?
-they are very similar in ideas, but they have different methods of accomplishing those ideas
What are the weaknesses of multiparty systems?
-it is more difficult to win so parties many form a coalition and join to try to win
Why is it important to be a good citizen?
-as contrary to the often reported bad citizen, it is important to be a good citizen to help you family, your community, and your country
List three things citizens have in common?
-protected by the bill of rights
Explain Salutary Neglect as it relates to the 13 colonies.
-in colonial times, when the colonies belonged to England, the time before the rule of George the third was called salutary neglect because the colonies would do as they pleased
What was the significance of Shay's Rebellion?
-it showed the gov that it was way to weak if a group of farmers could almost overthrow it
-George Washington was mortified at the thought of merging into anarchy because of a group of farmers
-showed that the Articles of Confederation was too weak
Who was John Locke? Explain how his idea(s) helped shape American Democracy.
-he took Hobbes theory even further by saying we are born with rights
-it is gov's job to protects those rights/liberty/freedom and if not, citizens can overthrow it(expressed in the Dec. of Indie.)
-subscribed to the social contract theory by saying that the gov protects our rights and in return we allow them to rule us
What was the purpose of the 3/5ths compromise?
-the south wanted as many represented members of H Reps as possible so they wanted to count the slaves, North didn't like this idea since the North didn't have many slaves
-a compromise to say that slaves count as 3/5ths of a person and that the slaves that counted for representation had to be taxed
What was the "great compromise"
-took a bit of the NJ plan and VA plan to make a bicameral legislature with one house called the H Reps that was represented by population and another house called the Senate that was represented by 2 persons per state
List three examples of speech that is not protected by the 1st Amendment.
-treason(like giving gov secrets)
-yelling fire in a crowded theater
What did the Civil Rights Act of 1964 accomplish?
-banned discrimination due to race, religion, sex, and origin
What is a Political Machine?
-wealthy, corrupt person that try to swat elections by using their money, power, and influence to get people to vote for their candidate by doing favors for them
-do illegal things to but out police and mayor
Name three groups of people that are not allowed to vote.
-convicted of a serious crime
-in a mental institute
-not a citizen
How do pollsters conduct public opinion polls?
-first define the universe(population that will be measured) and it should be a mixe3d group of at least 1.5k, careful wording and careful interviewing processes must be done
-if all is done, the results will be accurate by plus/minus 3%
-report the findings
How is the term "Public Opinion" often misleading?
-mass media has the ability to change public opinion or creating public opinion by stressing new stories
To which United Nations body do all member nations belong?
-the general assembly where all delegates meet and have regular meetings
-special meetings are held for emergencies
-make recommendations for nations
Which division of the United Nations supervises certain islands and developing countries?
-the trusteeship council
Which United Nations division meets at The Hague in the Netherlands?
-the international court of justice(world court)
-15 judges hear disputes of the nations based on international law
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