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Psychology Chapter 4- Conciousness
Terms in this set (74)
your awareness of everything that is going on around you and inside your own head at any given moment, which you use to organize your behavior including your thoughts, sensations, and feelings
thoughts, feelings, and sensations are clear and organized and they feel alert
altered state of consciousness
shift in quality/pattern of your mental activity where thoughts become fuzzy and unorganized
Name one example of an altered state of consciousness
daydreaming, hypnazation, meditation, being influenced by drugs, sleep
Name one example of a divided state of consciousness
texting and driving
natural cycles of activity that the body must go through
How long do circadian rhythms take?
they take about one day
Name an example of a circadian rhythm
What part of the brain is the sleep-wake cycle controlled by?
the internal clock that tells people when to wake up and fall asleep
What part of the brain does the hypothalamus control?
pineal gland, and it secretes melatonin or reduces melatonin
When are seratonin neurons most active?
when you're awake
Does a higher body temperature go with being more or less alert?
What is the best amount of sleep for 20 year olds to get?
7 hours of sleep
Do humans need sleep to survive?
brief sidesteps into sleep lasting only seconds
any significant loss of sleep
What is sleep important for?
What does sleep increase?
sleep increases synaptic connections in neurons, and thus neuroplasticity of the brain
What is the adaptive theory of sleep?
Says that sleep is a product of evolution
-animals develop sleep patterns to avoid being awake during predator's hunting time
What is the restorative theory of sleep?
says that sleep is necessary to the physical health of the body
machine that records brain-wave activity as a person goes through the stages of sleep
small and fast waves that happen when you're awake
larger and slower waves that occur when you're getting drowsy
even slower and larger brain waves
the longest and slowest waves that occur in the deepest stages of sleep
What happens in N1?
-R & K stage 1
-theta wave activity increases, alpha decreases
-if people are awakened, they will not believe that they were actually asleep
What happens during N2?
-R & K stage 2
-body temperature continues to drop
-heart rate slows, breathing becomes shallow + irregular
-if a person is awakened, they will be aware of having been asleep
brief bursts of activity (1 or 2 seconds)
a possible defense mechanism for falling out of trees while sleeping, sensations of falling
What happens in N3?
-R & K stages 3 and 4
-delta waves roll in
-slowest and largest brain waves increase from 20 to 50 percent of brain activity
-growth hormones are released from pituitary gland
-body is at its lowest level of functioning
-very hard to awaken a person in this stage
What happens in R?
-R & K REM stage
-also called paradoxical sleep
-goes back up through N2
-body temperature increases to near-waking levels
-eyes move rapidly, heart beats faster, alost beta waves
-90 percent of dreams take place here, and the dreams are more vivid and bizarre
-sleep paralysis (can't move)
increased amounts of REM sleep to catch up on lost REM sleep
After a physically demanding day, which kind of sleep will a person experience more of?
increase in non-rem sleep
After an emotionally stressful day, what kind of sleep will a person experience more of?
increase in REM sleep
REM behavior disorder
brain mechanisms that normally inhibit voluntary muscles fail, allowing thrashing and movement
state of panic experienced during sleep that happens in deep non-REM sleep
What percentage of the population experiences sleepwalking?
20 percent, also called somnambulism
inability to get sleep, stay asleep, or get quality sleep
What is insomnia caused by? (psychologically)
worrying, trying to hard too sleep, having anxiety
What is insomnia caused by? (physiologically)
caffeine, indigestion, aches and pain
What are some tips for getting over insomnia?
1. Go to bed only when you're sleepy
2. Don't do anything in your bed but sleep
3. Don't try too hard to sleep, DEFINITELY don't calculate the sleep you're losing
4. Keep a regular sleep schedule
5. Don't take sleeping pills or drink alcohol
snoring, person stops breathing
-trying to get air in lungs
-5-25% of adults experience it
-can cause heart problems
-obesity is often a primary cause
a kind of sleep seizure where a person suddenly slips into REM sleep during the day at inappropriate times and places
sudden loss of muscle tone
the actual dream itslef
hidden meaning behind manifest content
What are dreams a product of?
-inhibits the neurotransmitters that would allow movement of voluntary muscles and send random signals to areas of the cortex
-when signals from pons bombard the cortex, the brain synthesizes an explanation of cortex activation from memories and other stored information
when signals from pons bombard the cortex, the brain synthesizes an explanation of cortex activation from memories and other stored information
activation-information-mode model (AIM)
information accessed during can influence dream synthesis
-says that when the brain makes up a dream to explain its own activation, it uses meaningful bits of recent experiences rather than random
state of consciousness in which a person is especially susceptible to suggestion
1. hypnotist tells the person to focus on what is being said
2. person is told to relax/ feel tired
3. hypnotist tells person to let go and accept suggestions
4. person is told to use vivid imagination
What percentage of people can be hypnotized?
80 percent, 40 percent make good hypnotic subjects
What parts of the brain of good hypnotic subjects are more connected?
attention and decision
how susceptible you are
basic suggestion effect
What did Ernest Hilgard believe?
that hypnosis worked only on the immediate conscious mind of a person while a part of the mind remains unaware
What are some symptoms of hypnosis?
swaying, closed eyes, locked fingers, locked arms
What CAN hypnosis do?
create amnesia for the time under hypnosis, create relaxation, alter sensory perceptions
hypnosis as social role (social-cognitive theory of hypnosis)
people who are hypnotized are not in an altered state, but are playing the role expected of them
chemical substance that alters thinking, perception, and memory
-causes user's body to crave the drug
-body is unable to function normally without the drug
-drug tolerance occurs
a. headaches, nausea, irritability, severe pain, rise in blood pressure because the body is trying to adjust to the absence of the drug
-"gotta have it"
-belief that the drug is needed to continue feeling good
-drug use continues because the user thinks they need it
Where do drugs travel through?
the mesolimbic pathway, where they release dopamine and cause pleasure
-brain tries to adapt by decreasing dopamine receptors, causes the person to need more to create the same high
What attempts to change the way people think about stresses in their lives?
cause sympathetic or central nervous systems to increase levels of functioning
What are the different stimulants?
amphetamines, cocaine, nicotine, caffeine
What are the effects of the different stimulants?
slows down the central nervous system
What are the different depressants?
barbiturates, beznodiazepines, alcohol, narcotics, opium, morphine, heroin
cause the brain to alter its interpretation of sensations
What are the different hallucinogens?
LSD, PCP, MDMA, marijuana
What are the effects of the different hallucinogens?
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