Can be confused for one another.
Syncope: Many have precipitating events, when they fall, they go limp right before, 70-90% have convulsions, but last for less than 30 seconds, eyes are open with transient deviation, incontinence is common, rarely bite their tongue, postictal confusion for less than 30 seconds.
Seizure: Rarely have precipitating event, when they fall, they are stiff, convulsions last for 1-2 minutes, eyes open with sustained deviation, incontinence and tongue biting are common, postictal confusion for >2min.
Early: HA, dizziness, confusion, tinnitis, N/V, vision changes.
Late: Memory problems, poor concentration, irritability, sleep disturbances, personality changes, fatigue.
Many never experience loss of consciousness.
Tic: Habit reversal (channel urge to tic into something else), alpha agonists (Guanfacine > clonidine), tetrabenzaine (DA blocker), atypical antipsychotics (haloperidol, pimozide), classic neuroleptics, botulinum toxin, DBS.
OCD: CBT, SSRIs, atypical antipsychotics, DBS.
ADHD: CBT, alpha agonists, atomoxetine, methylphenidate
Discrete period of intense anxiety that self-resolves in 10-30 minutes.
Develops abruptly, subsides slowly.
Four or more physical sx: Palpitations, chest pain, sweating, shaking, SOB, choking, nausea, dizziness, numbness, tingling, fear of dying (can mimic an MI)
Intrusion sx (1+): Memories, nightmares, flashbacks, physiological reactions to cues.
Avoidance sx (1+): Avoidance of memories/thoughts/feelings/things related to trauma.
Mood and cognitive sx (2+): amnesia to event, negative thoughts about self, distorted thoughts about event, negative emotions, diminished interest in activity, detachment, inability to experience positive emotions.
Arousal and reactivity (2+): irritability/anger, reckless behavior, hypervigilance, startle response,  problems, sleep problems.
ACUTE brain failure. NOT a psychotic disorder
AKA encephalopathy, organic brain syndrome, altered mental status, acute confusional state.
A confusional state with ACUTE onset.
Sx: Sleep/wake cycle disturbance, psychomotor agitation/retardation, amnesia, cloudiness of consciousness, distractible, disoriented, delusions .
Fluctuating course, usually worse at night.
Perceptual changes (hallucinations, illusions).
Parent counseling, parent training, family problem solving and communication training, medication, teacher counseling, parent support associations.
Dietary management, megavitamin therapies, sensory integration therapy, chiropractic, eye movement exercises, relaxation training
DSM V recognizes alcohol, caffeine, cannabis, hallucinogens, PCP, inhalants, opioids, sedative-hypnotics, cocaine, amphetamines, and tobacco.
Tolerance, withdrawal, ***loss of control, cravings, and other criteria that determine impact on functioning.
Non-substance use disorder = gambling.