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92 terms

Final Meteorology

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jet streams
Are very turbulent
Meridional flow is characterized by flow that is ________; while zonal flow is characterized by flow that is ________.
north/south; west/east
Vilhelm Bjerknes:
helped develop a modern theory of the formation, growth, and dissipation of midlatitude cyclones.
The warm sector between the warm and cold fronts is generally characterized by:
clear conditions.
Low pressure systems result from: _______
localized heating of the air from below.
Which of the following are associated with the formation and intensification of surface mid-latitude cyclones?
upper-level divergence and lower-level convergence
Mid-latitude cyclones: _______
often bring substantial changes in wind and temperature.
This is the first step in classical cyclogenesis for a mid-latitude cyclone:_______
a polar front separates masses of warm and cold air.
Of the following steps in classical cyclogenesis of a mid-latitude cyclone, this happens last:
occlusion occurs.
During cyclogenesis, cloud formation will be least intense here: ______
along the boundary of the warm front.
The Bergen scientists noticed that cyclogenesis commonly initiated at all of the following places, except: ______
in the middle of areas with uniform temperatures.
For a mature mid-latitude cyclone, precipitation is least likely at this point: ______
behind the cold front
The warm front associated with a mid-latitude cyclone:
typically forms stratiform clouds.
Mid-latitude cyclones in the Northern Hemisphere typically travel primarily in this direction:
east.
The passage of a mid-latitude cyclone over Saint Louis would probably begin with this: ______
deepening cloud cover with possible light rain showers.
Earth vorticity: ______
is a function of latitude
Regarding vorticity, it is true that: ______
counterclockwise rotation in the Northern Hemisphere has positive vorticity.
The relationship between vorticity and convergence is such that: ______
increased convergence requires an increase in absolute vorticity over time.
Which of the following statements is NOT true? ______
Upper level divergence causes high pressure at the surface.
Which of the following statements is NOT true? ______
Surface cold fronts do not influence the upper troposphere.
Given the implications of the hydrostatic equation, we would expect that:
cold, dense air would have a greater vertical pressure gradient than would warm, light air.
Rossby waves: ______
have troughs that develop behind surface cold fronts.
It is true that: ______
the temperature at the surface can affect air flow at upper levels of the atmosphere.
Zonal patterns: ______
show little north-south displacement between contour lines on a 500 mb map.
A meridional pattern:
favors formation of major anticyclones.
Upper-level air that flows straight from west to east across the United States: ______
does not have pronounced vorticity characteristics.
The conveyor belt model: ______
focuses on three major flows of air.
In the conveyor belt model, this belt enters the storm flowing westward toward the surface cyclone: ______
cold conveyor belt.
The dry conveyor belt: ______
begins in the upper levels of the troposphere.
Anticyclones
often bring calm weather
The difference between "mid-latitude" cyclones and "tropical" cyclones is that: ______
tropical cyclones have only warm air while mid-latitude cyclones have three kinds of air.
A mid-latitude cyclone reaches its mature stage when: ______
the storm system undergoes occlusion.
In and during the occlusion process, the mid-latitude cyclone accomplishes its major purpose which is: ______
to mix air of different temperatures.
A "Rossby Wave" is also called a
Long wave
Vorticity is a measure of:
Rotation
Upper level divergence coupled with lower level convergence:
all the above
Upper level divergence coupled with lower level convergence:
All the above
Rising air is usually associated with a(n) ________ while sinking air is usually associated with a ________. ______
Trough; Ridge
The surface high and low pressure centers are steered by:
All the above
________ are the "mixmasters" of the atmosphere.
Mid-latitude cyclones
The forming of a Mid-latitude Cyclone is called:
cyclogenesis
The area between the cold front and warm front in a Mid-latitude Cyclone is called the:
warm sector
The hydrostatic equation is a relationship between:
Height, density, and pressure
Which of the following more accurately describes the precipitation patterns of a Mature Cyclone?
intense precipitation
The fronts in a wave cyclone often take on what type of shape?
None of the above
Which of the following is vorticity relative to he Earth's surface? ______
relative vorticity
Which of the following is caused by the localized heating of the air from below?
thermal low
The 1900 Galveston hurricane:
led to thousands of deaths.
Hurricanes generally need water temperatures of what value to form?
80 ºf
Hurricanes are:
warm-core systems with high pressure aloft
What % of tropical disturbances die out before ever evolving into more powerful systems?
more then 90%
The tropical disturbances that affect affect the Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, and the Americas, mostly form over:
western Africa, south of the Sahara desert
Over the Indian Ocean the strongest tropical storms are called:
cyclones
This region has the highest average number of hurricanes per year:
Western Pacific
Of the following regions, this one receives the smallest average annual number of hurricanes:
Northern Indian Ocean.
This region does not spawn any tropical storms:
Southern Hemisphere Atlantic Ocean.
This is hurricane season in Australia:
January to March.
Hurricanes:
have sustained wind speeds above 74 miles per hour.
Hurricanes gain most of their energy from:
latent heat released by condensation.
Hurricanes:
contain numerous thunderstorms arranged in a pinwheel formation.
A hurricane typically:
has temperatures near its center that are much higher than surrounding temperatures.
The eye of a hurricane has all of the following characteristics, except:
an average passage time of 5-10 minutes.
The eye wall of a hurricane has all of the following characteristics, except:
moderate winds
Tropical disturbances are most likely to form:
through the actions of easterly waves
The second-least intense type of tropical weather disturbance is the:
tropical depression
The most important condition for the formation of a hurricane is:
a deep surface layer of warm ocean water.
Once formed, a hurricane:
is self-propagating.
Atlantic hurricanes:
can backtrack along a previously traveled path.
Upon reaching the east coast of North America, tropical storms and hurricanes are most likely to move in this general direction:
North
Eastern Pacific hurricanes:
are weakened by the cold waters of the California current
A hurricane's greatest threat to life and property along coasts comes from:
flooding from storm surge and heavy rain
Storm surges are most intense:
on the right side of the hurricane.
Hurricane warnings:
are issued with an eye toward balancing the economic costs of preparing for a hurricane versus the probability the hurricane will actually hit the projected target area.
On the Saffir-Simpson scale:
the pressure of the hurricane decreases as the category number increases.
In a hurricane, most fatalities occur from: ______
the storm surge.
Choose the answer that places the hurricane at its proper position with respect to overall storm size:
mid-latitude cyclone, hurricane, thunderstorm, tornado
A hurricane is almost symmetric (round) in shape because: a hurricane has only warm air.
a hurricane has only warm air.
Horizontal air flow in a hurricane is: counter-clockwise at the surface, clockwise aloft.
counter-clockwise at the surface, clockwise aloft.
An easterly wave is: a favorable area for hurricane development.
a favorable area for hurricane development.
The primary over-riding requirement for hurricane development is: water that is at least 27°C (80°F)
water that is at least 27°C (80°F)
Hurricane paths (tracks):
can be highly erratic and hard to predict.
The driving force of all hurricanes is:
the release of latent heat.
The wind speed of a hurricane (in the northern hemisphere) is greatest:
on the right-hand side of the storm.
Tornadoes most often form in the ________ of a hurricane (in the northern hemisphere).
Northeast quadrant
The reason almost all hurricanes occur in the equatorial regions of the earth is because:
it has the largest source of warm water.
Hurricanes lose strength when they:
move over cooler water. And move over land.
Hurricane storm surges are most destructive during:
high tide.
Most hurricanes in the North Atlantic Ocean begin as:
an easterly wave.
Sea-level pressure near the center of a typical hurricane is:
950 mb
The most dangerous aspect to inland areas from hurricane landfall is:
flash flooding from heavy rain.
Which of the following exhibits "banding" in a hurricane?
rainfall intensity
A shrinking hurricane eye generally means:
an intensifying hurricane.