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baldness or loss of hair


Dental cavities; tooth decay


wax in the external ear canals, consisting of a heavy oil and brown pigment


a disorder of the lips and mouth characterized by bilateral scales and fissures, resulting from a deficiency of riboflavin in the diet


inflammation of the gingivae or gums


Inflammation of the tongue.


offensive breath


infestation with lice (Pediculus humanus) resulting in severe itching


marked inflammation of the gums that also involves degeneration of the dental periosteum (tissues) and bone


invisible, destructive, bacterial film that builds up on teeth and eventually leads to the destruction of tooth enamel


inflammation of the mucous membrane of the mouth


a visible, hard deposit of plaque and dead bacteria that forms at the gum lines.

Hygiene practices

caring for like the
perineal area (private's)

good hygiene usually means

good health

integumentary system

organ system that includes har, skin, and nails and protects the body from pathogens and maintains homeostasis

Illness affects the

hair, the endocrine system is stressed body tempt,poor nutrition, anxiety all factor in. hormones and blood supply to hair follicles change hair there is truth to making someone go grey.f

Nails are

epithelial tissue accessory structures

healthy nailbeds are

evenly curved

unhealthy nail beds are


healthy teeth and mouth leads to

good health

Calcium,phosphorus vitamin D

good teeth

healthy teeth and mouth leads to

good digestion since food breakdown occurs with teeth and saliva

Perineal area

in a female, the area between the vagina and anus, in a male, the area between the scrotum and anus. needs to be clean because it is dark,warm,moist, bacterial growth leads to physiological and odor problems if not cleaned daily.

Factors Affecting Personal Hygiene

socioeconomic class,
Spiritual Practices,
developmental level,
health state
Personal Preferences

Factors Affecting Personal Hygiene -Culture

cultural variations - some cultures place a high value on personal hygiene shower bath every day use products to reduce body odor, some cultures shower bath less frequently. Some shower or bath together some private alone.

Factors Affecting Personal Hygiene - socioeconomic class,

socioeconomic class and financial resources define hygiene options renting a room with no access to shower or tub buying soap,shampoo, shave cream. Homeless people no access.

Factors Affecting Personal Hygiene - Spiritual Practices

Spiritual Practices, religious beliefs ceremonial washing and purification sometime before food or prayer

Factors Affecting Personal Hygiene - developmental level,

developmental level, Children learn from family like morning or night baths shampooing, toothbrushing, cloths changing, nudity as they hit teenagers there hygiene needs change

Factors Affecting Personal Hygiene -health state

health state, disease,injury,surgery may reduce a persons ability to perform hygiene. Fear of falling dizziness, weakness, entering the tub, bending over to clean lower part of body.

Factors Affecting Personal Hygiene - Personal Preferences

Personal Preferences - people have different ideas of hygiene like taking a tub or a shower using bar soap verse liquid soap and washing to wake oneself up. Skin care products to prevent wrinkles. Sexually active women use a variety of hygiene products following intercourse that promote cleanliness.

Hygiene .

Hygiene practices include bathing and care of skin and specific body areas, including the oral cavity,eyes,ears,nose,hair,nails ,feet, and vaginal and perineal areas.

Hygiene practices include bathing and care of

skin and specific body areas,
including the oral cavity,
nails ,feet,
and vaginal and perineal areas.

Nursing process for skin care and personal hygiene

Nurse who role model good health behavior are more effective teachers
Keep my hair clean neat
my skin clean
Mouth clean no odor
nails neat and manicured
body not stinky

Assessing personal hygiene

interview and physical assessment skills to elicit data about the patients hygiene status. When patient has a physical or mental condition that can impair hygiene the nurse should note and provide.

Nursing history of hygiene

a clear threat to health must exist before a nurse decides that an individual's hygiene practices are inadequate. Nurse must determine if the patient has the knowledge,attitude,skills, and resources to care for the skin and mucous membrane.


question the patient about past skin problems

Hygiene practices factors to assess

-Daily and weekly bathing habits.
-Sensory cognitive, endurance, durability and motivation factors
-Expository history/ sunbathe , chemicals
-History of skin or mucus membrane problems

Special Hygiene Practices

Mouth- how do you clean your teeth and gums
Eyes, Ears, and Nose- hearing aid, glasses
Hair-unusual dryness of scalp
Feet and Nails- nails look normal, do they clean their nails? are they intact?
-Perineum- unusual discharge swelling, itching, inflammation.Can they do their own perineal care
-Piercings- body piercings and problems related to them

Examples of NANDA nursing diagnosis- hygiene

Bathing self-care deficit R/T sensory, cognitive, endurance, mobility, or motivational deficits.
Impaired oral mucus membranes ineffective oral hygiene- malnutrition NPO for more than 24 hours
Impaired social interactions-negative body image, visual or auditory impairment.

Bathing and Skin Care

-Cleansing the skin
- Acting as a skin conditioner
- Helping to relax restless person
- Promote Circulation
- Stimulating the rate and depth of respiration
- Helps improve self-image
- Strengthens the nurse patient relationship

General Skin Care Principles

-assess the patients skin daily
- cleanse the skin when indicated, such as when soiled using a no rinse ph balanced cleanser
- avoid using soap and hot water
-avoid excessive friction and scrubbing
- minimize skin exposure to moisture (incontinence, wound leakage) use a skin barrier product that is necessary
- use emollients (moisturizer)

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