86 terms

Ch. 17 ALL

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National Grange
this is the first major farmers' organization that was founded by Oliver Hudson Kelley in 1867
Oliver Hudson Kelley
he created the National Grange primarily as a social organization, but as it grew the Grange began to tackle economic and political issues
cooperatives
organizations in which groups of farmers pool their resources to buy and sell goods; these were formed to lower costs
graduated income tax
this taxed people with higher incomes at a higher rate
Mary Elizabeth Lease
she was an alliance movement leader from Kansas who traveled around the country urging people to take action; she spoke out against MONOPOLIES
The Alliance Movement
This movement consisted of 3 organizations:
1. the National Farmers' Alliance
2. the all-white Southern Alliance
3. the Colored Farmers' Alliance
gold standard
under this, each dollar was equal to and redeemable for a set amount of gold
Munn vs. Illinois
the supreme court case that declared that state legislatures had the right to regulate businesses such as railroads that involved public interest; victory for the farmers
Interstate Commerce Act
this act prohibited railroads from giving secret refunds to large shippers OR charging more for short hauls than for long hauls over the same line; ALSO it stated that railroad rates had to be "reasonable and just"
Bland-Allison Act
act passed in 1878; Stated that silver had to be used to back paper money to put more money in circulation
Sherman Silver Purchase Act
act passed in 1890; passed to require that silver be used to mint coins so we could expand the amount of currency in circulation; directly pleased the FARMERS
Sherman Antitrust Act
this law said that it was against the law for there to be a monopoly
1896
this is the year of the TURNING POINT election with William Jennings Bryan and William McKinley
bimetalism
the belief in using to metals - gold and silver - to back the US dollar
bullion
another word for metal
Until the courts reinterpreted "Restraint of Trade" 2 bad things will happen:
1. Monopolies will still be happening
2. Unions will not be allowed - can't get better conditions, etc.
unions
the Sherman Antitrust Act was supposed to fight monopolies but instead it was used to fight _____.
trust
another word for monopoly
restraint of trade
lawmakers thought of this idea with a BROAD interpretation; used it to fight against unions; part of the Sherman Antitrust Act
populist demands
1. Graduated income tax
2. Government ownership of railroad and telegraph
3. Free and unlimited coinage of silver - if this happened the money would be in circulation it would be bad
This would cause INFLATION
4. Bank regulation - if we put away money it will be safe
5. Restriction on immigration
6. Shorter work days
7. Voting reform
8. Government to buy crop excesses and hold the oversupply in storage until they could be sold for more money
inflation
when the value of the money goes down and you have to pay more money for the same product
Populists
the peoples party that grew out of the alliance movement and they set the demands that the people wanted
alliance movement
a larger alliance of all the grangers; an effort to continue to organize reform
Interstate Commerce Commission
the job of this group was to enforce the Interstate Commerce act and put teeth into it
Munn vs. Illinois
a supreme court case that states have the right to regulate railroad rates; from then on there will be demands for the government to regulate railroad rats
grange movement
this movement encourages farms to form cooperatives, started by Oliver Kelley who turns into an important person in the Populist movement; cooperatives eliminate the middle man
Why were prices on farm products high?
1. Monopoly
2. Railroads overcharging rates
3. Protective tariffs
1930s
FACT: Labor Unions will not become legal in practice until the ____s
3 demands of the workers
1. More pay
2. Shorter hours
3. Better conditions
Interstate Commerce Act
this act lets the government indirectly control things that happen within businesses and the industry --> minimum wage and work hours
1870s to 1900
dates of reform
____s to _____
James Weaver
populist nominee that ran in the 1892 presidential election against Harrison and Cleveland
Panic of 1893
a financial panic that sent stock prices plunging, DUE to the failure of one of the nation's leading railroad companies
William McKinley
the Ohio governer, the Republican presidential candidate in 1896; believed in gold standard
William Jennings Bryan
the Democrat and Populist presidential candidate in 1896; a two-term representative from Nebraska
election of 1896
the Populist party died out due to this election
William McKinley
he won the presidential election of 1896 because he had $$$money$$$
political machines
well-organized political parties that dominated the city governments; they had members elected to local political offices
political bosses
powerful people who managed the political machines; they dictated party positions on issues and made deals with business leaders
precinct captains
district leaders of the political machines who developed relationships with potential voters living in urban areas and won support for the political machine
Alexander Shepherd
a political boss in Washington DC who financed expanded sewer and water systems, paved streets, and other public services; spent $20 million on civic improvements and new jobs in DC
Tammany Hall
a political club that became a powerful Democratic political machine in New York City in during the 1890's
Tammany Hall
this political club sent party workers to Ellis Island to meet new immigrants and find them temporary housing, jobs, and made them citizens --> eligible to vote for this political machine
jobs in exchange for votes
Political bosses ensured voter loyalty among immigrant groups by providing _____ in exchange for _____.
James Pendergast
a well-liked, kind hearted, sympathetic man who provided jobs and special services to his African, Irish and Italian American constituents
James Pendergast
he ran a political machine in Kansas City, Missouri
immigrants
this group of people became active members of political machines -- officeholders, organizers, and representatives
Boston
this is the city where the Irish American population highly influenced the local Democratic machine; 1/3 of the city's voters were Irish Americans
Irish Americans
these group of immigrants were rewarded jobs in the local police and fire departments if they remained loyal to the Democratic political machine in Boston
John F. Fitzgerald
John F. Kennedy's grandfather who ran to be the mayor of Boston in the late 1800s
voting fraud
this is a type of fraud that political machines turned to when jobs and political favors were not enough to win elections
graft
the acquisition of money or political power through illegal or dishonest methods (political machines would take advantage of public funds)
kickbacks
payments of part of the earnings from a job or contract
Charles Yerkes
he built a virtual monopoly over Chicago's mass transit system by paying Powers to support city ordinances favorable to his company
George Washington Plunkitt
a political boss of Tammany Hall who defended himself by saying he used "honest graft"
Tweed Ring
Tweed and his ring of political supporters who used their position of power to gain bribes and kickbacks --> collected $200 million in graft in 6 years
William Marcy Tweed
he is the most well-known and powerful boss of Tammany Hall; he had control over the issuing of contracts for public projects and government jobs --> which he took advantage of.
William Marcy Tweed
the public opinion turned against him when he was exposed for his corruption in Tammany Hall and he was sent to jail
Thomas Nast
a cartoonists who had 50 cartoons in Harper's Weekly that sharply criticized Tweed and Tammany Hall; his cartoons helped make political cartoons an important feature in the American press
patronage jobs
Jobs given by political bosses and in return for the job you must pledge your loyalty to that boss and vote for him in the election
Civil Service System
this idea started because government bosses where handing out jobs to unqualified people; under this system, job applicants now had to take a merit exam
Black Friday
this is the nickname for September 24, 1869 which was the day when the price of gold fell sharply when Grant sold $4 million of the government's gold
to corner
to gain a monopoly on
Gould and Fisk
two financiers who tried to corner the gold market; they wanted to drive up the price of gold
The Liberal Republican Party
this political party was formed by Republicans shocked by the Grant scandals and tired of Reconstruction
Horace Greeley
the presidential nominee for the Liberal Republican Party in the election of 1872; he lost the election and died 24 days afterwards
Whiskey Ring
this is the group of whiskey distributors who made a taxation of whiskey and then were forced to pay by the treasury officials
spoils system
public exposure of corruption in Grant's administration led to increasing opposition to this system
Mark Twain
this author wrote The Gilded Age along with other satires which used humor to deal with important issues in American society
satire
a form of writing that uses humor to point out human faults; used by Mark Twain
The Gilded Age
this was a book that examined the values of wealthy Americans and the nature of national politics after the Civil War; by Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner
The Gilded Age
this book described American political life as a gilded surface with corruption and greed lying underneath; written by Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner
Stalwarts
this is the term for the people who belong to this subgroup of the Republican party that is led by Conkling; they are STRONGLY opposed to civil service reform
Conkling
he is the leader of the Stalwarts who strongly opposed civil service reform
The Half-Breeds
this is a subgroup of the Republican party that was led by James Blaine; it included members who strongly supported civil service reforms and others who did not completely oppose patronage jobs
patronage
rewarding political supporters with government jobs
James Garfield
he was the Republican Party's presidential candidate who belonged to the Half-Breeds
The Half-Breeds
this is the Republican subgroup whose candidate became the OFFICIAL republican presidential candidate
Chester Arthur
this is the Republican vice presidential nominee who belonged to the Stalwarts subgroup
Charles Guiteau
president Garfield's assassin; he was a mentally unstable man who had unsuccessfully sought a government job
Pendleton Civil Service Act
this bill established the Civil Service Commission to administer competitive examinations to those people seeking government jobs
Pendleton Civil Service Act
this act established as law the idea that federal jobs below the policy making level should be filled based on merit
mugwumps
this is the name for reformers who supported the Democratic candidate, Grover Cleveland; the Algonquian word for "big chiefs"
Grover Cleveland
this is the Democrat who won the presidential election of 1884; he is an honest man
Benjamin Harrison
the Republican presidential nominee for 1888; the grandson of the 9th president William Henry Harrison; he won electoral vote while his opponent, Cleveland, won popular vote
Billion Dollar Congress
the nickname for Congress when congress spent money so freely on Civil War pensions for Union veterans