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City in western Arabia to which the Prophet Muhammad and his followers emigrated in 622 to escape persecution in Mecca. (p. 231)
a system of ancient caravan routes across Central Asia, along which traders carried silk and other trade goods.
Laws (no longer in effect) in South Africa that physically separated different races into different geographic areas.
farmers produced just enough food for themselves and sometimes a little extra to trade in town
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay.
a mountain range in the eastern United States extending from Quebec to the Gulf of Mexico
small river or stream that flows in to a larger river or stream; a branch of the river
migration into a place (especially migration to a country of which you are not a native in order to settle there)
fuel consisting of the remains of organisms preserved in rocks in the earth's crust with high carbon and hydrogen content
Plateau of Tibet
world's highest plateau north of the Himalayas/sometimes called the Roof of the World
North China Plain
in eastern China / fertile river valleys good for farming / for centuries Chinese have farmed here / good climate: melting snow, monsoon rains feed Yellow River / floods from Yellow River leave silt deposits & make land rich for farming
the theory that pieces of Earth's lithosphere are in constant motion, driven by convection currents in the mantle
Oil-rich kingdom bordering Iraq to the south. The ruling family is considered the protector and custodian of Mecca and Medina, the holiest sites in Islam.
gully or streambed in northern Africa and the Middle East that remains dry except during rainy season
The world's longest river, which flows northward through East Africa into the Mediterranean Sea
a mountain range in northern Africa between the Mediterranean and the Sahara Desert
a fine-grained fertile soil deposited by water flowing over flood plains or in river beds
a landlocked salt lake between Israel and Jordan that is so salty that almost nothing can live in its waters; it is 1,349 feet below sea level, making it the lowest place on the exposed crust of the earth
the mountain range in Caucasia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea that forms part of the traditional border between Europe and Asia
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