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Arabian Peninsula



the religion of Muslims collectively which governs their civilization and way of life


the Arab prophet who founded Islam (570-632)


the holiest city of Islam; Muhammad's birthplace


City in western Arabia to which the Prophet Muhammad and his followers emigrated in 622 to escape persecution in Mecca. (p. 231)

red sea

Body of water separating Africa from the Arabian Peninsula

jordan river

a river in Palestine that empties into the Dead Sea

sahara desert

the world's largest desert (3,500,000 square miles) in northern Africa

Nile River


a member of a people who have no permanent home but move about according to the seasons


a member of a nomadic tribe of Arabs


belief in a single God


belief in many gods


a lack of belief in the existence of God or gods


(Islam) a Muslim place of worship


the Semitic language of the Arabs

Fertile Crescent

silk roads

a system of ancient caravan routes across Central Asia, along which traders carried silk and other trade goods.

rift valley

a deep valley that forms where two plates move apart

Victoria Falls

Africa's largest waterfall

Congo River

a river in Central Africa that flows into the Atlantic Ocean


Laws (no longer in effect) in South Africa that physically separated different races into different geographic areas.

subsistance farming

farmers produced just enough food for themselves and sometimes a little extra to trade in town


the gradual transformation of habitable land into desert


A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay.

Rocky Mountains

the chief mountain range of western North America

Appalachian Mountains

a mountain range in the eastern United States extending from Quebec to the Gulf of Mexico


a layer of permeable rock that lets water move freely


small river or stream that flows in to a larger river or stream; a branch of the river


migration into a place (especially migration to a country of which you are not a native in order to settle there)

The Civil War

Name the U.S war between the North and the South.


growth to a global or worldwide scale


the social process whereby cities grow and societies become more urban

fossil fuel

fuel consisting of the remains of organisms preserved in rocks in the earth's crust with high carbon and hydrogen content


a violent tropical storm that forms in the Pacific Ocean, usually in late summer

Gobi Desert

a desert in central Asia

Yellow River

a major river of Asia in northern China


a group of many islands in a large body of water


feudal Japanese military aristocracy

Plateau of Tibet

world's highest plateau north of the Himalayas/sometimes called the Roof of the World


The highest mountains in the world; located in the far north region of India.

Taklimakan Desert

desert located in western China between the Tian Shan & Kunlun Mountains

Mao Zedong

Chinese communist leader (1893-1976)

Chang Kia-shek

Traditionalist Leader in China before Mao's communist uprising

North China Plain

in eastern China / fertile river valleys good for farming / for centuries Chinese have farmed here / good climate: melting snow, monsoon rains feed Yellow River / floods from Yellow River leave silt deposits & make land rich for farming

plate tectonics

the theory that pieces of Earth's lithosphere are in constant motion, driven by convection currents in the mantle

Saudi Arabia

Oil-rich kingdom bordering Iraq to the south. The ruling family is considered the protector and custodian of Mecca and Medina, the holiest sites in Islam.


gully or streambed in northern Africa and the Middle East that remains dry except during rainy season

Tigris and Euphrates

two rivers that form the outside border of Mesopotamia

Nile River

The world's longest river, which flows northward through East Africa into the Mediterranean Sea

Atlas mountains

a mountain range in northern Africa between the Mediterranean and the Sahara Desert

alluvial soil

a fine-grained fertile soil deposited by water flowing over flood plains or in river beds

dead sea

a landlocked salt lake between Israel and Jordan that is so salty that almost nothing can live in its waters; it is 1,349 feet below sea level, making it the lowest place on the exposed crust of the earth

Sinai Peninsula

a peninsula in northeastern Egypt

Persian Gulf

A body of water east of the Arabian peninsula that separates Arabia from Iran

Caucasus Mountains

the mountain range in Caucasia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea that forms part of the traditional border between Europe and Asia

The Great Plains

dry, flat, treeless land in the central United States


The first successful settlement in the Virginia colony founded in May, 1607.


The failed "lost colony" founded by Sir Walter Raleigh

St. Augustine

First spanish settlement. Florida 1565

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