51 terms

College Speech - Terms 2

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Chronological pattern of arrangment
follows the natural sequential order of the main points. Describes a series of events in the time they developed
Causal (cause-effect) pattern of arrangement
Are arranged in a cause-effect pattern
Topical pattern of arrangement
Use when each of the main points is a subtopic or category of the speech topic. (why to choose Chicago as a place to establish a career)
Narrative organizational pattern
Speech which consists of a story or series of short stories, replete with character, settings, plot, and vivid imagery
Spatial pattern of arrangement
When describing or explaining the physical arrangement of a place, a scene, or an object, logic suggests that the main points can be arranged in order of their physical proximity or direction relative to one another (tour of a place)
Problem-solution pattern of arrangement
organizes main points to demonstrate the nature and significance of a problem and to provide justification for a proposed solution
Circle organizational pattern
Used when you develop one idea, which leads to another, which leads to a third, and so forth
Speaking from manuscript
you read a speech that is from prepared written text that contains the entire speech word for word
Speaking from memory (oratory)
You put the entire speech, word for word, into writing and the commit it to memory
Speaking extemporaneously
between impromptu and written or memorized deliveries. Speak from an outline
Delivery
skillful application of vocal and nonverbal conversational behavior in a way that is natural, enthusiastic, confident, and direct
Speaking improptu
Type of delivery that is unpracticed, spontaneous, or improvised, involves speaking on relatively short notice with little time to prepare
Persuasive speech
goal is to influence the attitudes, beliefs, values, and acts of others
Ethos
moral character
Speaker Credibility
is established when the speaker shows the audience what is relevant to them
Hierarchy of needs
Developed by Abraham Maslow and it's a belief that each of us has a basic set of needs ranging from essential, life-sustaining ones, to less critical, self-improved ones
Central processing
Form of thinking when a listener is motivated and able to think critically about a message. Listener seriously considers the meaning of a message
Peripheral processing
The listener lacks motivation to judge the argument based on its merits and they pay little attention and respond to the message as being irrelevant, too complex to follow, or unimportant
Claims of fact
Focus on whether something is or is not true or whether something will or will not happen
Claims of value
Address issues of judgement by attempting to show that something is right or wrong, good or bad, worthy or unworthy
Claims of policy
Recommend that a specific course of action be taken or approved of
Logical fallacy
Either a false or erroneous statement or an invalid or deceptive line of reasoning
Motivated sequence
five-step process that beings with arousing listeners' attention and ends with calling for action
Comparative advantage pattern
speech points are organized to show how your viewpoint is superior to others
Refutation organizational pattern
Each main point addresses and then refutes an opposing claim to your position
Special occasion speech
one that is prepared for a purpose dictated by that occasion
Speech of introduction
Object is to prepare or "warm up" the audience for the main speaker-- to heighten audience interest and build the speaker's credibility
Speech of presentation
goal is to communicate the meaning of the award and to explain why the recipient is receiving it
Roast
Humorous tribute to a person
Toast
Brief tribute to a person or an event being celebrated
Speech of inspiration
seeks to motivate listeners to positively consider, reflect on, and sometimes act on the speaker's words
Informative speech
provides new information, new insights, or new ways of thinking about a topic
Operational definition
Defining a topic by explaining what it does
Definition by negation
Defining the topic by describing what it is not
Definition by example
defining the topic by providing several concrete examples of it
Definition by synonym
defining the topic by comparing it to something with which it is synonymous
Definition by etymology
Defining the topic by illustrating the root meaning of the term in question
Analogies
Helps establish a common ground of understanding
Logos
appeals to reason and logic are critical when an audience needs to make an important decision or reach a conclusion regarding a complicated issue
arguments
stated positions, with support for or against an idea or issue
Pathos
convincing listeners to care about your argument by appealing to their emotions
Argument
you ask listeners to accept a conclusion about some state of affairs by providing evidence and reasons to show that the evidence logically supports the claim
Claim
states the speaker's conclusion, based on evidence
Evidence
substantiates the claim
Reasoning/warrants
links the claim to evidence
problem-solution pattern
organize speech points to demonstrate the nature and significance of a problem and then provide justification for a propose solution
problem-cause-solution
used when a speech requires more than two points to adequately explain the problem and to substantiate the recommended solution
Speech of acceptance
made in response to receiving an awards
Eulogy
means "to praise" and a speech given by a person who is charged with celebrating and commemorating the life of someone while consoling those who have been left behind
After-dinner speech
occurs before, during, or after a lunch seminar or other type of business, professional, or civic meeting. It is expected to be lighthearted and entertaining
Canned
Speech that the speaker uses again and again in different settings
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