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Chase - 7th Grade History - Chapter 18: Chinese Discoveries and Inventions

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Many of the advances in inventions came during what dynasties?
Tang and Song dynasties
What was one of the most important inventions that made travel easier?
magnetic compass
What were the first Chinese compasses made of?
pieces of magnetic mineral called lodestone
What did the Chinese eventually replace lodestone with?
a steel needle with lodestone rubbed on it
What was possible with the use of compasses?
long voyages (didn't need landmark or a point in the sky to steer by)
What did the Chinese do to make sea travel safer?
improving boat construction
What did builders equip boats with?
watertight compartments with caulk
What invention sped up travel on rivers and across lakes?
the paddlewheel boat
What is a canal lock?
a gated chamber in a canal used to raise or lower the water level
Why were canal locks important?
they made travel easier
What is one of China's most prized technological achievements?
segmental arch bridge
What was a benefit of the segmental arch bridge?
took less material to build and it was stronger
Describe the Chinese invented art of papermaking.
for long Chinese were the only ones who knew the secret of making paper
Where did paper making spread to?
Japan, Central Asia, and Europe
What did the invention of paper lead to?
printing
Explain the technique of woodblock printing.
printer drew characters on paper and glued it on a wooden block then carved out the wood around the characters. then the printer covered the characters with black ink and pressed a sheet of paper with a brush
What did movable type consist of?
separate blocks for each character
How did printers make their type?
carving characters in clay and baking them
What were two results of movable type?
lower cost of printing and it helped spread learning throughout China
lodestone
a magnetic mineral
paddlewheel boat
a boat using continuously turning paddles
canal lock
a gated chamber in a canal used to raise or lower the water level
segmental arch bridge
a bridge supported by arches that are shallow segments (parts) of a circle
woodblock printing
a type of printing using wood blocks and ink
movable type
individual characters made of wood or metal that can be arranged to create a job for printing and then used again
porcelain
a hard, white pottery; also called china
alchemy
combination of science, magic, and philosophy that was practiced in medieval times
inoculate
to protect against disease by transmitting a disease-causing agent to a person, stimulating the body's defensive reactions
vaccine
a substance used to immunize people against a disease
What inventions made exploration and travel safer and faster?
magnetic compass, paddlewheel boats, canal locks, and the segmental arch bridge
Why was papermaking an important industry in China?
it was used for recording and transmitting information
Why was the invention of woodblock printing & then the improved movable type printing an important industry in China?
it lowered the cost and helped spread learning in China
Why was porcelain an important industry in China?
it became a major industry and a prized (very popular) trade item
Why was steel an important industry in China?
they were able to mass produce it, which was crucial to the Industrial Revolution
Why was gunpowder such an important invention?
it made the development of powerful weapons possible.
How did woodblock printing make it possible for the inventions of everyday objects such as playing cards and paper money.
it allowed one design for an item to be reprinted multiple times.
How did the Chinese discoveries of inoculation and vaccines help prevent diseases?
it stimulated their immune systems to help fight diseases.
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