Microbiology Exam 2 (Chapter 8 & 9)

the study of heredity
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Terms in this set (39)
inactivates the geneKnockout mutationinserting a transposonTranspositionCaused by a mutagen May cause point mutation or frameshift mutation Modify nucleobase: converts cytosine to uracil, alkaylating agents add alkyl groups onto nucleobases, base analogs TranspositionInduced mutationUV formation of thymine dimer X-ray- double and single strand breaks in DNAInduced Mutation (Radiation)catalyzes the reactionPhotolyaseSplitting thymine dimers with visible light PhotolasePhotoreactivationUses enzymes to correct damaged DNA by removing itExcision RepairWhen DNA is heavily damaged Last ditch repair mechanism When photoreactivation and excision repair are not enough A different type of DNA polymerase by passes all all the replication rules mutagenesisSOS (repair)a mutant that requires different requirements from its parentsAuxotrophone or more nucleic acids are re-arranged or re-combine to produce a new nucleotide sequenceRecombinationRecombination Auxotroph Bruce Ames, 1970 Determines if a chemical increases mutation rate Salmonella and HistidineAMES TestA circular DNA, autonomously replicating Containing genes that improve survival May integrate into the host chromosomes Conjugative and resistancePlasmidsPieces of DNA that can move from one chromosome to another, or from one place to another within the genomeTransposonTransfers of genes within the same generationHorizontal Gene Transfersuptake of genetic material intoTransformationtransfer of gene via a bacteriophageTransductionDNA transfer between bacterial cellsConjugationIn vitroLabIn vivoLiving organisms, DNA cloningcarrier Transgenic organismVectorRecognize and cut DNA between nucleotides at a specific sequences EcoRi EcoRvRestriction EnzymesSeparation of protein or nucleic acid using electrical current based on size through a porous gel (restriction enzymes)Gel ElectrophoresisAgarose gel forDNAAcrylamide gel forproteinsMaking a piece of DNA from mRNA cDNA Genetic ResearchReverse TranscriptionAllows detection of colonies that have specific sequence of DNAColony BlottingUse probes to detect the presence of specific fragmentsother blotting methods Southern blotting Western blotting Northern blottingcreating many colonies of DNA in a short time using a thermal cycler Key ingredients: Double stranded DNA (template), Taq polymerase, Primers, Nucleotides, Buffers Stages: Denaturation: 95 degrees Celsius (6-8 minutes) Primer annealing (45-54 degrees Celsius 30 sec) DNA Synthesis (primer extension): 72 degrees Celsius (45 sec to a minute) Repetition:28-32 days cyclesPolymerase Chain Reactionheat stableTaq polymerase