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Russian Revolution (History 12)

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Tsar Nicholas II - Why was he important?
He created "Tsarism", also the Romanov Dynasty. Tsarism had its flaws though, as Peasantry made 80% of Russia illiterate and "backward", Labour created breeding grounds for communists and there was few skilled workers in Russia, and industrialization caused urban crowding.
Alexander Kerensky - Why was he important?
Kerensky, an able and charismatic speaker, is only person to be a member of both the Soviet and Provisional Govt.
Vladimir Lenin - What did he contribute to the Russian Revolution?
The first leader of Soviet Russia, He carried out fast change in Russia by following Marxism, (communism) and was apart of the Bolsheviks.
Leon Trotsky - Why was he important?
Leon Trotsky was a Marxist revolutionary and theorist, Soviet politician, and the founding leader of the Red Army. Trotsky initially supported the Mensheviks, but then supported the Bolsheviks.
Josef Stalin - What did he contribute to the Russian Revolution?
Joseph Stalin was the leader of the Soviet Union, He followed communist tendencies of Lenin, but took them to the extreme when the "cult of personality" had been taken and amplified to do what Stalin wanted to see from Russia.
Karl Marx (Marxism) - What is it?
Karl Marx was the advocate for Communism in Russia, believed the private property was "evil" and the "Marx revolution" fought for exploitation of classes in society, believed that capitalism would diminish when the workers became conscious. Post revolution there was the "dictatorship of the proletariats" and the dictatorship would wither away and make way for true communism.
Who are the proletariats?
The workers within the factory.
Who are the bourgeoisie?
The factory owner.
Who are the group "Duma" and what did they do?
They were a legislative assembly, created a democratic monarchy.
What is the "Comintern"?
The Communist International, abbreviated as Comintern and also known as the Third International (1919-1943), was an international communist organization that advocated world communism.
What is "Tsar's Abdication" in 1917?
This is following the February Revolution (International Womens day) when from Feb 23rd to March 2nd was this revolution fighting for bread. Tsar abdicates on March 2nd and is arrested. Ultimately the strikes and riots left no one to defend the Tsarist Regime.
Who are the Mensheviks?
Working-class organization; consisted of radical socialist intellectuals. Opposing Bolsheviks.
Who said "Peace, Land, and Bread." and why was this important?
Valdimir Lenin, he said this because he had 4 ways to overthrow the government and change Russia.
-All power to Soviets
-Nationalization of property
-Workers control of industry
-Immediate end to the war
"Treaty of Brest" by litovsk in 1918, what was it?
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on 3 March 1918 between the new Bolshevik government of Soviet Russia and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Ottoman Empire), that ended Russia's participation in World War I.
Who was the Provisional Gov. and why was this Government important? What were the problems with it? (4)
Forms Provisional Government Ministers, mostly 'liberal' in outlook, of Duma.. Key: Government had less actual power than Petrograd Soviet.

War- Kept the war going on, soviets held out a defence based post to prolong the war effort.

Land reform- Famine year round, peasants wanted re-distribution of land, and the gov was slow to react causing the constituent assembly.

Autonomy for National minorities - Russia was made of 50% national minorities (baltic states)

Democracy - It was slow and the people wanted fast change, Also democratic views opened this thought of "sweeping change".
What was the Russian Civil War from 1918-1920, why did it start?
The Russian Civil War was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future
What is the Red Army vs. White Army? What groups were associated?
other political parties supported the anti-Bolshevik White Army, among them the democrats, the Socialist-Revolutionary Party, and others who opposed the Bolshevik October Revolution of Lenin.
Who were the Bolsheviks?
led by Lenin, seized control of the government in Russia (October 1917) and became the dominant political power.
What is War Communism?
The war in the middle of communism. lead to:

Grain requisitioning & rationing
Nationalization of all means of production
Strict labour discipline
What does the "N.E.P" stand for and why is it important?
New Economic Policy, was an economic policy of Soviet Russia proposed by Vladimir Lenin, who called it "state capitalism". Caused:

Private trade, moderation of harsh economic policies
Permit peasants to sell excess, private ownership, small business
Permits the re-establishment of a middle class both in the city and on farms (Kulaks)
Creates personal affluence, access to goods
Who says the quote "socialism in one country"?
Stalin, he was an isolationist as he wanted to create determined borders for Russia.
What were the five year plans enforced by Stalin?
Joseph Stalin, in 1928, launched the first Five-Year Plan; it was designed to industrialize the USSR in the shortest possible time and, in the process, to expedite the collectivization of farms.
What does the term "Collectivization" mean?
Collectivization was a policy of forced consolidation of individual peasant households into collective farms.
Who are the Kulaks?
were a category of relatively affluent farmers in the later Russian Empire, Soviet Russia, and early Soviet Union.
Why was the Ukraine Famine a significant event in 1932-1933?
Stalin enforced collectivization of farms, meaning that successful farmers (kulaks) were being overthrown. 1.5 million Ukrainian people died due to famine. Stalin forced his way to gain land and ship away Ukrainian people to Siberia with no food and often they died within transit to Siberia.
Who are the "Cheka"?
Russia's Secret police, stands for: All-Russia Extraordinary Commission to Combat Counter-revolution and Sabotage.
What was the purpose of the purges, and who enforced them?
Stalin enforced the purges to those who opposed him, any group, anyone. even his own Bolsheviks.
What are "show trails"?
A show trial is a public trial in which the judicial authorities have already determined the guilt of the defendant. Show trials tend to be retributive rather than correctional justice and also conducted for propagandistic purposes.
What is Communism?
a political theory derived from Karl Marx, advocating class war and leading to a society in which all property is publicly owned and each person works and is paid according to their abilities and needs.
What does the term "totalitarianism" mean?
absolute control by the state or a governing branch of a highly centralized institution. 3. the character or quality of an autocratic or authoritarian individual, group, or government
Who is "Prince Lvov"?
was a Russian statesman and the first post-imperial prime minister of Russia.
Why is the Russo-Japanese war of 1905 significant?
The Russo-Japanese War was fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea to determine borders. This was the first time any Asian force has beaten a European force in war.
What was the event "Bloody Sunday" in 1905, and why did it occur?
Tsarist troops shoot on protesters and kill hundreds, this showed Tsars inability to deal with the people and people lost faith in the Tsar.
What is the "Communist Manifesto" and who is it written by?
Marx, also it was a theory of Communism and what it represented.
What happened in the event of the "March Revolution" in 1917? Result?
(March 1917) was a revolution focused around Petrograd (now Saint Petersburg), then capital of Russia. In the chaos, members of the Imperial parliament or Duma assumed control of the country, forming the Russian Provisional Government.
What happened in the event of the "November Revolution" in 1917? Result?
On Nov. 7, 1917, Russia's Bolshevik Revolution took place as forces led by Vladimir Ilyich Lenin overthrew the provisional government of Alexander Kerensky.
What is the N.K.V.D?
It was closely associated with the Soviet secret police, which at times was part of the agency, and is known for its political repression during the era of Joseph Stalin. Contained commercial workers, firefighters, police etc..
What is Socialism?
a political and economic theory of social organization that advocates that the means of production, distribution, and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community as a whole.
Who are the Soviets, how were they formed and why were they important in Russia?
Lenin put the Soviet people in power and Stalin made Russia as the soviet union, they were a communist union.
Who is "Politburo"?
The Politburo was set up in 1917 by Vladimir Lenin, it was the central policymaking and governing body of both the Communist Party and the state.
Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact in August of 1939, why was it important?
Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union surprised the world by signing the German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact, in which the two countries agreed to take no military action against each other for the next 10 years.
What is "Order Number One"?
Calls on soldiers to form soviets in every military unit; it asks soldiers to obey orders of Duma only if they did not contradict the Petrograd Soviet. (Duma had no power over the Soviets)
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