Indiana Core Pedagogy P-12
Terms in this set (69)
a process which identifies the behaviors, cognitive processes, and specific knowledge necessary for mastery. This is a key step in instructional planning, as it helps the teacher decide on appropriate activities and instructional strategies.
A bell-shaped symmetrical frequency plot showing the distribution of scores is called a normal distribution. Sometimes it's also called a bell curve.
Report cards will include
grade point averages, student attendance and tardiness rates, and comments about behavior and attitude. These can be standardized and noted by a reference number.
Formative assessments of knowledge are best suited for
student / teacher dialogues.
Teacher observation is best
when short-term recordkeeping is necessary, as it can assess small domains of knowledge.
a mathematically transformed raw score
when a person experiences anxiety over a task because his or her performance may confirm a stereotype about a group to which he or she belongs: race, gender, class, etc. The anxiety tends to result in poor performance. It is key to keep stereotype threat in mind when working with students from historically stereotyped groups.
Active experimentation Educational theorist, David Kolb introduced a theory of learning styles that include
concrete experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization and active experimentation.
Students who use theories to answer problems and make decisions are using
grouping information into units. This helps information stay in the short term memory. This improves the chance of information coming into long term memory.
associating sounds with letters to make words and looking for common patterns to read words
Prefixes and suffixes
change word meaning
helps students make connections between sounds and letters or phonemes
knowing what has been taught - it is not a learning category
of or relating to the sense of touch, in particular relating to the perception and manipulation of objects using the senses of touch and proprioception.
is useful in math. It sorts information and creates graphs.
compare the performance of students. They compare populations. They do not tell the teacher what the student has learned in a given class or subject. The scores may be spread out so that even a good score might be in the lower quartile. Parents are often overly focused on these types of scores which compare students. This can encourage competition. Schools are moving toward a more community-based model for learning.
developed a curriculum design model based on the cognitive development approach. His research divides cognitive development into three stages or levels. He asserted that curriculum should encourage problem solving
notes collected by teachers. They are informal records. They are useful for adjusting instruction when necessary
learn most effectively in groups or with other people. They are sometimes also called interpersonal learners
The eight intelligences that affect the style in which one learns are
linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist
description of how information is learned. It is associated with how information is absorbed, processed, and retained. The two types of conditional learning theories classical conditioning and operant conditioning
what is stored from past experiences about events, scenarios, actions, objects, or facts, according to Piaget's theory of cognitive development
a discussion form in which students make up a set of speeches based on two opposing views. Debaters present their views, then the other team rebuts the view with their own. Questions can be addressed to both sides in a debate regarding the issue.
a discussion form in which a group of four to eight participants discuss a topic while the rest of the group listens. The audience can then ask questions of the panel
graded, or leveled, readers which had a great influence on public education in the United States. The content of the text upheld American values for this time. There were several series of Readers. By 1879, more than 60 million had been sold
identifies what the learners already knows and what they need to know. A task analysis does not evaluate or test or assess proficiency
a process in which teacher self-observe and self-evaluate their methods of teaching and lessons they present. This type of practice helps them determine what does and does not work for them in the classroom and helps them discover new ways of teaching throughout their career
Journal of Secondary Gifted Education
JOAA publishes articles that feature strategies for programs that promote high levels of academic achievement and programs that prepare students to engage in high-level and rigorous academics. It was originally published as The Journal of Secondary Gifted Education until 1999, when educators began to expand the field of gifted and talented and created a new set of guidelines for the classroom
the ability to think about the thought and learning process. Children typically develop this between the ages of five and six
an exercise, test, or assessment consisting of a portion of text with certain words removed, where the participant is asked to replace the missing words. Cloze tests require the ability to understand context and vocabulary in order to identify the correct words or type of words that belong in the deleted passages of a text.
can be promoted by anticipatory and cloze activities. These activities are important at the beginning and end of the day because teachers can use them to create the connections, as well as assess how much the students have learned.
an education-related position within a school facility that is generally responsible for the assistance and well-being of students. This includes professionals such as teacher aides, cafeteria workers, bus monitors, crossing guards, principals, etc.
occur when students evaluate other students in the class.
a formative exam
students transform information they have learned into a different symbolic form of language, such as writing or deciphering
Bloom's Cognitive Domain (from lowest to highest)
Remembering, Understanding, Applying, Analyzing, Evaluating, Creating
something is correctly inferred or deducted from a premise. If something is said to be valid, it is true.
the measurement of "intellectual accomplishments that are worthwhile, significant, and meaningful," as contrasted to multiple choice standardized tests. Authentic assessment can be devised by the teacher, or in collaboration with the student by engaging student voice.
Examples of authentic assessment categories include:
performance of the skills, or demonstrating use of a particular knowledge, simulations and role plays, studio portfolios, strategically selecting items
based on a nine point standard scale with a mean of five and a standard deviation of two. Stanine scores are used to see the distribution of scores for a grade level to find patterns in student achievement over time
divides scores into four equal parts and can also help define student achievement over time
advocated the theory of multiple intelligences. It states that there are many different types of intelligence, all of them based on the types of skills and abilities that are valued in a given culture.
the total way of life of a student's family. Family culture can include language, discipline style, religion, and other aspects of life.
A key indicator of intelligence is the ability to
Goodman's five areas are:
1) print awareness in situational contexts (environmental -- signs, menus etc.)
2) print awareness in discourse (print in books, websites, etc.)
3) functions and forms of writing (representing letters or words)
4) oral language to talk about written language (describes a book or story)
5) metacognitive and metalinguistic awareness about written language (understanding print terms such as letter, page etc.)
the smallest unit of sound
social learning theory
developed by Albert Bandura. His theory has four components. attention, retention, motor reproduction and motivation
The New Taxonomy
classes goals in four levels of complexity.
Level 1: Retrieval -- recognition and recall of basic information and the execution of procedures.
Level 2: Comprehension -- identifying the critical features of knowledge; articulate and represent major ideas and supporting details
Level 3: Analysis -- reasoned extensions of knowledge; makes inferences, identifies similarities and differences etc.
Level 4: Knowledge utilization -- using new knowledge in the context of a robust (real-world) task
framed by what students will be able to do, what skills, processes, or strategies they will employ. (New Taxonomy)
informational or what students will understand. (New Taxonomy)
Formative assessment is designed to
give students feedback on learning while helping the teacher determine effective ways of teaching. One example of this assessment is for the teacher to ask verbal questions and have each child write their answer on their board and hold it up. This allows the teacher to see which students are learning the material and which ones may need more help.
'academic rationalism' curriculum orientation
Promotes teaching reading, writing and arithmetic to ensure students measure up to the state or national standards Social adaptation and social reconstruction evaluate the needs of society and then aims to teach students the skills needed to survive as an adult
Sensorimotor (0-2 years); Preoperational (2-7 years); Concrete Operational (7-11 years); Formal Operations (11+ years)
"Choice Theory" or the "Control Theory"
Developed by William Glasser. Proposed that teachers should focus on students' behavior, not the students, Teachers use classroom meetings to change behaviors. Students have a say in rules, curriculum, and classroom environment. This gives them a greater sense of ownership and promotes intrinsic motivation for learning and behavior.
Guadalupe Organization, Inc. v. Tempe School District
This 1972 decision addressed the tendency of English Language Learners to be declared learning disabled. According to this decision, students cannot be declared MR unless they were properly assessed by considering primary language and were at least 2 standard deviations below the mean.
Zone of Proximal Development
Vygotsky developed this. It is the difference between what a student can accomplish on his or her own and with teacher help or scaffolds
At the end of a unit of instruction, the teacher is MOST likely to
The three elements of a well-written instructional objective according to Robert Mager are:
1. Performance - what the learner is expected to be able to do (a product or result)
2. Conditions -- the conditions under which the performance is to occur
3. Criterion -- a description of acceptable performance
Dimensions refer to
the goal specificity and goal difficulty.
pertains to physical movement, such as coordination and the use of the motor-skill areas. When developing this area, it usually requires practice and is measured in terms of speed, precision, and technique
The units studied require the sequencing of _____.
help students make grapheme-phoneme connections.Students use chips to represent phonemes or use letters to identify the sound.
affective domain include
how we deal with things emotionally, such as feelings, enthusiasms and attitudes. When students participate in a discussion, they are expressing how they feel emotionally, while also interpreting how the other person is conveying their thoughts, feelings, and opinions.
Diagnostic assessments are used to
assess student understanding. It may be used in a group setting. It may also be used when a student is showing signs of trouble.
When students create schema for ideas, they
they establish connections. An example of this is "comparing and contrasting oligarchy to other types of governments." It must indicate how students will make relevant connections for a new concept.
how assessments are scored
the calculation of the number of words in a given lexicon which differ by only one sound. For example, "hay" and "day" differ in only the beginning sound.
Summative assessments occur
at the end of the teaching and learning cycle each school year. This type of assessment is used to see what a student has learned over the course of a school year. Types of summative assessments include: term papers, examinations, and teacher self-evaluations.