Terms in this set (105)
Social learning theory
Zone of proximal development
Theory of hierarchy of needs
Given at end of instructional unit to evaluate students understanding of a specific learning objective
Measures students collective knowledge and learning potential
used before a lesson or unit to provide the teacher with information about the student's prior knowledge, strengths, or weaknesses
used when creating IEP to identify reasons for a specific student behavior or to address provlem behavior
a way for students to understand new concepts, providing mental organizing schemes for students to approach new ideas. The more teachers make connecting patterns clear and easily understandable for students, the easier the brain will integrate new information
Presenting different avenues to assist students in acquiring the content being taught based on the student's ability level or learning style. Includes both high and low levels of thinking
Strategy to help students understand how new information is organized and how different aspects relate to each other. Involves aids for connecting and organizing information. Specialized strategies geared to support learning when students are first introduced to a new subject. Gives students a context, motivation, or foundation from which to understand the new information.
Modifying curriculum to meet students different learning rates, styles, interests, and abilities. Class work should include enriched activities or be presented in an accelerated way. Provide greater breadth and depth, use resources not normally available to them. Not just increased volume or more difficult work.
provide feedback during the instructional process to allow the teacher to adjust instruction to address student needs
Compares student performance to another population, such as peers who have taken the same test
Criterion referenced assessment
How well a student understands specific content on a test
a collection of student work accumulated over a period of instruction, such as in a unit or course. Exhibits students efforts, progress, and achievement in one or more areas
Occurs in a more casual manner and may include observation, inventories, checklists, rating scales, rubrics, performance and portfolio assessments, participation, peer and self evaluation, and discussion
divides leaning objectives into levels according to type and complexity.
six levels within the cognitive domain for learning. They are: Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, & Evaluation
deals with the breadth of what is taught in a subject
the order in which the materials are taught
How instruction is carried out or the method and practice of teaching.
Areas of exceptionality
visual and perceptual difficulties; special physical or sensory challenges; learning disabilities; ADD, ADHD; functional mental retardation
instructional strategy that enables students to induce general principles or concepts by themselves or in groups, using their own free exploration of data or experiences. The teacher does not instruct, but rather monitors student participation and serves as a resource
Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA)
Federal legislation related to the education of students with disabilities. This law includes the requirement of school counselors to participate in IEP planning process and meetings.
requires school district to provide FAPE for every qualified person with a disability, regardless of the nature and severity of the person's disability. Students have a written accommodation plan but not an IEP.
learning theory that proposes that students construct understanding based on their own experiences
Social learning theory
the effect of a behavior has an impact on the motivation of people to engage in that specific behavior
Grade equivalent score
score that compares the raw score attained by an individual student to the raw score attained by the average student in the norm group for the particular test and then reports the grade and month level of the norm group comparison
percentage of students in a norm group whose scores are exceeded by any specific raw score
Canter's theory in which teachers clearly communicate expectations and class rules and follow through with expectations. If students don't follow rules they face consequences, if they do they get positive recognition.
require that students demonstrate new learning in a meaningful way, but students are offered a choice in selecting an activity. Teacher should provide learning objectives, identify resources, and set time parameters for the project
4 stages of cognitive development. assimilation and accomodation
A desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment
motivation driven by an interest in or enjoyment of the task itself, comes from within the individual rather than any external pressure
His theory said learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based upon their current/past knowledge. The learner selects and transforms information, constructs hypotheses, and makes decisions, relying on a cognitive structures
theorist who claimed individuals went through a series of stages in the process of moral development.
helpful in eliciting responses to higher-level questioning.
Goal is for students to think deeper before responding and give longer and better answers, and more students will respond and interact with each other.
intellectual process that enables individuals to step back from a particular learning experience and think about how they learn new things, their preferred and most successful methods for learning, and their strategies for using knowledge in new learning situations
Relative grading standards
used to rank students just within their classrooms
used to have students demonstrate tasks in real-life contexts
teacher centered, involves giving instruction with little or no input from students, such as a lecture. Most often used when presenting new information
mainly student centered. Can include discussion, problem solving, and guided inquiry.
focus is on asking questions, not providing answers. Teachers model an inquiring mind by continually probing the subject with questions
teaching strategy that combines curriculum and academic standards from more than one content area
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
A wide-ranging civil rights law that prohibits discrimination based on disability; covers employment, transportation, building accessibility, transportation, etc. 1991
PA Chapter 14
District must provide specially designed instruction for students who need it due to a disability. Ex: mental retardation, hearing impairment, speech or language impairment, visual impairment, serious emotional disturbance, orthopedic impairment, autism, traumatic brain injury, specific learning disability
Increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.
Increasing behaviors by stopping, reducing, or preventing negative stimuli, such as shock, when the desired response occurs. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response.
following an undesired response by adding an unpleasant stimulus to decrease the likelihood of the behavior reoccuring
Decreasing behavior by stopping or reducing positive stimuli. (Subtracting something good)
levels of cognition
categorized learning into domains
PA Chapter 16
districts to provide students identified as gifted with
specially designed instruction. acknowledges students who are gifted as children with exceptionalities
PA Chapter 15
District must provide necessary supports for child to participate in and benefit from the education program at school, and equal access to all school programs - but does not require specialized instruction. A child is eligible if she has a physical, mental or other health impairment which substantially limits one or more major life activities, such as
learning, walking, seeing, hearing, speaking, breathing, or caring for oneself.
Research based instruction
Wrote Classroom Instruction that Works - 9 researched-based strategies to improve student achievement. standards-based assessment, cognition, high-yield teaching strategies, and school leadership, including the development of practical programs and tools
Research based instruction
Authentic education. Understanding by Design model. created the "backwards approach to lesson planning" as assessment has become more imperative. think about the end, or the desired outcome, of the learning experiences.
Big idea, assessment
Understanding by Design (UbD) - focuses on backward design and teaching for understanding (worked with Wiggins)
Described human development as 8 psychosocial stages and each stage involves a crisis which must be resolved before a person can successfully move on to the next stage.
Schema learning theory
all knowledge is organized into units. Human mind uses these to organize, retrieve, and encode chunks of important information. They are accumulated over time and through different experiences. Teachers help students develop new ones and establish connections between them
devised the theory of multiple intelligences (logical-mathematic, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, intrapersonal, linguistic, musical, interpersonal, naturalistic)
Transfer learning theory
Transfer of learning-- connection or application of learned material to future skill or knowledge acquisition. transferring one's knowledge and skills from one problem solving situation to another
Self-regulation learning theory
When a person keeps track of what they have learned, what they still need to learn, and have a strategy for how to learn it. "an active, constructive process whereby learners set goals for their learning and then attempt to monitor, regulate, and control their cognition, motivation, and behavior in the service of those goals..."
Zone of proximal development
In Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development, the difference between what children can accomplish on their own and what they can accomplish with the help of others who are more competent.
Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act
this legislation requires schools to provide parents or guardians (and students over 18) with free access to school records- legislation restricts access to these records by others. Helps keep teachers and schools accountable for what they say about students.
Gardner: bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalistic, logical-mathematical, linguistic, musical, spatial
change in what is being taught to or expected from the student
Modifications and accommodations
a change that helps a student overcome or work around the disability.
According to Piaget, the process by which existing mental structures and behaviors are modified to adapt to new experiences
According to Piaget, the process by which new ideas and experiences are absorbed and incorporated into existing mental structures and behaviors
Self-efficacy learning theory
extent or strength of one's belief in one's own ability to complete tasks and reach goals. the ability to persist and a person's ability to succeed with a task
Based on the idea that changes in behavior result more from experience and less from our personality or how we think or feel about a situation.
Scoring a student's performance on an assessment by evaluating various aspects of it separately. Different skills are marked separately and each skill is divided into components (listening: spelling, comprehension etc)
Summarizing a student's performance on an assessment with a single score.
Relationship between learning theory and adolescent development
Standards aligned instruction
What are the differences among the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor learning domains?
Strategies for activating prior knowledge
Experiential and virtual instruction
Transfer of learning
Describe the steps involved in teaching to an objective
Difference between prompting and probing
Formal vs informal assessment
Achievement vs aptitude vs ability tests
Characteristics of developmentally responsive middle level schools
What are strategies to support the learning of ELL students?
Adolescent intellectual development
the ability to think beyond concrete, current situations to what might or could be; the ability to cognitively manage a variety of abstract possibilities; the ability to see issues in relative, as opposed to absolute, terms
Adolescent physical development
Transition from childhood to adulthood
Adolescent psychological development
Look largely at how puberty affects a range of developmental phenomena from relationships with peers and parents to the search for personal identity.
Adolescent social development
identity vs role confusion, independence vs. acceptance. attempt to find an identity.
not ahead of physical and intellectual
Goal: to define identity, independently from parental authorit
• Most important : self-concept & development of new attachments (away from parent
Adolescent moral and ethical development
Decline in ego, improved role taking, support from environment
moral judgement is based on earlier learned principles of right and wrong. Parents directly and indirectly influence