Bio ch 12, 17
Terms in this set (118)
Which of the following is a significant new challenge plants faced in moving to land that they had not faced in their aquatic environment?
Early seed plants were pollinated by
The common term for the action of transferring pollen grains from an anther onto a stigma is:
serve to attract animals to collect and disperse pollen
Which of the following is the most diverse group of plants?
All of the following floral parts are directly involved in pollination or fertilization except the
Ovules become seeds and ovaries become
The cell wall of fungi is made of
Which of the following is the best description of a lichen?
symbiosis between fungi and algae (or cyanobacteria)
Both mosses and ferns must have free standing water present (e.g., water droplets) in order to fulfill their requirements for fertilization. Which of the following choices is the most likely explanation for why this would be?
Both mosses and ferns have motile male gametes that require water to travel to the female gametes
The evolution of seeds allowed for:
plants to colonize dryer climates
Gymnosperms and angiosperms have the following in common except
A plant that has flowers with no petals is most likely to be
pollinated by the wind
The receptive surface for pollen grains is the
Which of the following flower parts develop into a seed?
The main bulk of a multicellular fungus is called the _________
Dispersal of fungal spores is typically done by:
Which of the following terms includes all of the others in the list?
Which of the following is NOT an example of a gymnosperm?
The stamens of a flowering plant are broken down into two separate parts. The long, stalk-like structure is the _________ and the pollen-producing bodies on the tips are the __________.
In angiosperms the _______________ are the specialized reproductive organs whose main function is to bring together the sperm and egg.
Which of the following characteristics do most plants share with land animals
an embryo that develops within a protected environment
Mosses and ferns differ in their reproductive strategies from gymnosperms and angiosperms in which of the following ways?
Mosses and ferns rely on liquid water for fertilization, whereas angiosperms and gymnosperms do not need liquid water for fertilization
Which of the following statements about ferns is incorrect?
Their seeds are dispersed via the wind
Which is the best brief description of the vascular system found in the very first terrestrial plants?
The first plants did not develop a vascular system
produces the haploid gametes of a fern
Which of the following best explains the following statement: "Algae are not plants"?
This statement is true; algae only live directly in water or on very moist land surfaces and, therefore, are not plants
Which one of the following is a key challenge of stationary living?
All of the above are key challenges of stationary living.
What is the cuticle?
The first and fourth choices are both true:
-the waxy layer that protects plants from drying out
-the material that makes leaves shiny
Which of the following is TRUE about the endosperm?
All of the above:
-It is a store of carbohydrate in the seed.
-It provides energy to the embryo and young seedling.
-It is the actual part of popcorn that we eat
-Endosperm is not in all plants
Which of the following is TRUE about seed plants?
None of the above
In terms of their adaptation to living on land, how are reptiles similar to the seed plants?
The third and fourth choices are correct:
-Seed plants and reptiles have developed structures such as cuticles and impermeable skin to minimize desiccation
-Reptiles and seed plants have developed structures that house their gametes and protect them from the surrounding environment
Which of the following correctly orders the sequence of events in the life cycle of a gymnosperm?
male cones release pollen, pollen grains release sperm, fertilization, female cones release seeds
Which of the following is characteristic of gymnosperms?
They are wind-pollinated
Which of the following statements about male and female cones is TRUE?
A female cone contains ovules on the protruding scales; a male cone releases pollen grains that are dispersed via wind.
Unlike the seedless plants, seed plants
are not dependent on water for reproduction
The evolution of seeds corresponded with the evolution of
Gymnosperms can have
Both the first and third choices are correct:
The pollen-producing structure in an angiosperm flower is called the __________.
Angiosperms and gymnosperms differ from each other in that
angiosperms tend to rely on animal pollinators, whereas gymnosperms tend to rely on wind pollination
"Double fertilization" in angiosperms refers to
the fusion of a sperm cell with the egg, and another with two endosperm nuclei
Anthers and stigmas can be found on
Currently the _____ are the dominant form of plants
What is the one most obvious difference between the gymnosperms and angiosperms?
The gymnosperms don't form flowers, whereas the angiosperms do form flowers
Which of the following correctly orders the parts of a flower from the outside towards the inside?
sepals, petals, stamens, carpel
Which of the following is NOT a method used in the wild by angiosperms to attract animal pollinators to their flowers?
All of the above are methods that angiosperms use to attract animal pollinators
Based on the fact that a watermelon contains many seeds, what can be inferred about a normal flower
It contains large ovules
Some plants release methyl jasmonate (MJ) when they are injured. Which is a likely reason for doing this?
to signal other plants to increase their production of defensive chemicals
Why do insectivorous plants trap insects?
in order to gain more nitrogen
Which of the following is a likely way in which plants increase dispersal of their seeds?
All of the above:
-Fruits are conspicuously colored
-Fruit tastes good
-Fruit colors attract female birds
When a seed breaks its dormancy and begins to grow and develop again, it enters into a state of
Chemical defenses are more common among plants than animals because
plants cannot move to escape predators and so must develop other deterrents
Dispersal of fungal spores is typically done by
Branches are to a tree as __________ are to a __________
Organisms such as lobsters and grasshoppers have an exoskeleton made of chitin. Which of the following organisms also has a cell wall made of chitin?
Which of the following comparisons and contrasts between fungi and plants is incorrect?
Both fungi and plants use chitin as a structural stabilizer
Fungal hyphae form an interwoven mass called
Which of the following is characteristic of gymnosperms
They are wind-pollinated
Which of the following comparisons and contrasts between fungi and plants is incorrect
Both fungi and plants use chitin as a structural stabilizer.
You are taking a hike down a forest trail and see the familiar sight of a mushroom on the ground. This visible portion of a fungal body is the structure also referred to as the:
Which of the following is NOT a function of a plant's stem?
serve as the primary site of photosynthesis in the plant
A plant takes up water through its ___________ and expels water through its ____________.
Xylem tissue conducts water while phloem tissue conducts
Which tissue makes up the majority of plant tissue and is responsible for photosynthesis, food storage, and the production and release of hormones?
What are the elongated, stringy cells found in the plant stem that is partially peeled in the picture?
What do sclerenchyma, parenchyma, and collenchyma cells have in common?
They are all types of ground tissue
Just like the human body is composed of many different tissue types, a flowering plant is made of various tissues. Which of the following is NOT one of the tissues of a flowering plant?
holes created by open guard cells in a leaf.
Evaporation from the leaves of a tree will pull water up through the roots as an unbroken column throughout the entire height of the tree. This feat is possible because of which characteristic of water?
Carnivorous plants digest small invertebrate animals. These animals are broken down by the plant's enzymes and the products are used to supplement the plant's supply of
Which of the following statements comparing plants to animals is the most accurate?
Both the first and fourth choices are correct:
-The longest-living plants live 10 times longer than the longest-living animals
-the total amount of plant matter on earth is more than 10 times the biomass of all the animals
How do plants circulate food, water, and nutrients?
vascular tissue of roots
Monocots differ from dicots in several ways. Which of the following structures is NOT a difference between monocots and dicots?
All of the above statements are differences between monocots and dicots:
-the number of cotyledons
What are the embryonic precursors to leaves in a seedling called?
Which of the following correctly describes a difference in stem anatomy between monocots and eudicots?
Monocots have vascular bundles distributed randomly through the stem.
All of the following are ground tissue cell types EXCEPT
Which of the following is most important in providing structural support in vascular plants
Sugars produced in the leaves of a plant are transported elsewhere in the plant through
sieve tubes that make up the phloem
Which of the following is not a part of dermal tissue?
A plant expels oxygen through its ____________ and takes up carbon dioxide through its ___________.
A new species of plant was recently discovered. It has flowers with five petals and five stamens in each flower. You can conclude that this plant probably has
branching leaf veins
Parenchyma is a type of
Roots perform which of the following functions in plants?
All of the above are correct:
What are the three primary functions of roots?
absorption, anchorage, and storage
What is the difference (if any) between lateral and apical meristems?
Apical meristem cell division results in root or stem lengthening; lateral meristem cell division results in stem or root thickening.
Leaves are generally thin, with a three-layered structure that includes all of the following EXCEPT:
apical meristem cells
Which of the following is TRUE about plant leaves?
they must allow some water vapor to escape through stomata in order to transport water from the roots into the leaves.
If the shoots of plants are covered with an impermeable cuticle layer, how do plants manage to exchange water and gas with the surrounding environment?
Specialized pores in the cuticle called stomata allow gas and water exchange.
Plants can have one of two kinds of root systems: a taproot or a fibrous root system. Which of the following describes the differences between these two systems?
taproot: grow deep down into the soil; fibrous: tend to occupy upper, shallow parts of the soil and grow outward
Which of the following essential plant nutrients is NOT generally taken up through the roots
Carnivorous plants digest small invertebrate animals. These animals are broken down by the plant's enzymes, and the products are used to supplement the plant's supply of
Which of the following steps of the pressure-flow mechanism is CORRECT?
As water moves into the phloem, it increases the fluid pressure inside the phloem
The stamens of a flowering plant are broken into two separate parts. The long, stalk-like structure is the __________ and the pollen-producing bodies on the tips are the ___________.
Gymnosperms and angiosperms have the following in common EXCEPT:
The cell was of fungi is made of
both mosses and ferns have free standing water present (e.g. water droplets) in order to fulfill their requirements for fertilization. which of the following choices is most the likely explanation for why this would be?
both mosses and ferns have motile male gametes that require water to travel to the female gametes
What is endosperm?
a food-storing tissue of the seed
Which of the following statements about the differences between roots and shoots is correct?
the shoots are the site of photosynthesis while roots cannot perform photosynthesis because the sunlight cannot reach them
A germinating corn kernel produces a seedling with one cotyledon, whereas a germinating tomato seed produces a seedling with two cotyledons. From this information, what is a corn plant and what is a tomato plant?
a corn plant is a monocot; a tomato plant is a dicot
what are the initial leaves produced by a seedling called?
the specialized cells that facilitate gas exchange in plants are known as:
for a typical green plant to thrive, it needs
sunlight, water, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and minerals
there are two different analogies to describe how fluid is transported through a plant; that of the drinking straw (negative pressure) and that of the hose (positive pressure). which of the following properly links the type of vascular tissue with it corresponding analogy
xylem: straw; phloem: hose
Which of the following essential plant nutrients is NOT generally taken up through the roots?
Unlike in animals, most of a tree's cells are
Which of the following is true about a sexually reproducing population?
the population can better keep up with changing conditions
some fruits are attractive food for animals. Others that rely on animal dispersal are
sticky or covered with clingy burrs
what is the structure on a flowering plant that receives the pollen granules?
what is endosperm?
A food-storing tissue of the seed
each of the various tissues of a flowering plant serves their own individual function. which of the following does not properly match flowering plant's tissue with its function within the plant?
shoots: anchors plant
xylem tissue conducts water while phloem tissue conducts
The "pressure-flow mechanism" in trees explains
how sap moves through phloem
carrion flowers mostly attract
in angiosperms the __________ are the specialized reproductive organs whose main function is to bring together the sperm and egg
when you are 5 years old you write you name 3 feet above the ground into a 9 foot tall bamboo plant. you spend the next 10 years in a special home for vandals. when you get out the bamboo is 18 feet tall. at that time, how far above the ground will your name be?
The phrase "double fertilization" in angiosperm is best described by which of the choices below?
each pollen grain contains 2 sperm cells and one leads to fertilization that produces the embryo and the other that leads to the fertilization that produces the endosperm
Trees are different from animals in that trees have
indeterminate growth, large amounts of dead cells, and regularly lose mass without adverse effects
secondary plant growth causes the plant to
increase in girth