Prince Henry the Navigator
A prince who helped advance Portuguese navigation and trade significantly. He took part in the conquest of Ceuta, a Muslim trading city in North Africa. He also built a school for navigators. He brought together the best map makers, scientists, and ship designers. He paid for explorations along Afica's coast.
a Portuguese exploreer; first to sail around the southern tip of Africa to the Cape of Good Hope in 1488
Vasco da Gama
a Portuguese navigator who was the first European to sail to India in 1497; his voyage opened the way for the expansion of the Portuguese empire; He brought back spices, such as cloves, and jewels back from his voyage. He earned 60 times the amount he spent
An Italian navigator who discovered the Americas in 1492 while looking for a sea route from Europe to Asia
Vasco Nunez de Balboa
a Spanish explorer who discovered the Isthmus of Panama in 1511; also led an expedition that reached Pacific Ocean
a Portuguese explorer whose crew was the first to sail around the world from 1520-1522; he was killed during the voyage by natives of the Philippines
the exclusive control of goods or services in a market; the areas in which only one government or company has the right to trade
Pedro Alvarez Cabral
a Portuguese explorer; claimed Brazil for Portugal in 1500; later sailed to India
a person who is sent to do religious or charitable work in a foreign country; the people who traveled to other places to convert others to their religions
the causing of injury or distress to others because of their religion, race, or political beliefs
Sir George Macartney
a British citizen that the British government sent to ask for British trading rights in China. He presented Qianlong, the Chinese emperor, with samples of fine British manufactured goods. This attempt failed.
A Spanish conquistador who conquered the Incan empire when they were weakened by a civil war
the movement of plants and animals between the Western and Eastern hemispheres after the voyages of Columbus
the belief that science and natural laws bring individuals and society to a more enlightened state
an Italian physicist who played a major role in scientific revolution. He improved the telescope, and he proved that the sun was the center of the universe and the planets revolved around it.
sir isaac newton
a British scientist who studied the motion of the planets and objects on the earth. His theories about natural laws included the laws of motion and gravity.
divine right of kings
the theory that the right to rule had been decided by God, and rulers had to answer only to him. People had no say and no freedom of speech.
king louis xvi
a French king who was overthrown in the French Revolution. His wife was Marie Antoinette
in France, the three social groups were called this. They were the nobility, the clergy, and the common people
an important prison in France that also had a large storehouse of weapons. During the French revolution, the mob took over this place
Declaration of the rights of man
a document written by the national assembly during the French revolution. It was based on the U.S. declaration of independence. It guaranteed basic rights for all French citizens
the most radical political group of the National Assembly; they were led by Maximilien Robespierre. They declared a policy of terror against all opponents, including supporters of the king and nearly anyone else who disagreed with their policies
parts that are identical in size, shape, and quality and that allow products to be assembled quickly and efficiently
a scottish inventor who adapted the steam engine for uses other than pumping water from mines
the policy of forming and maintaining an empire, usually by taking over foreign colonies
congress of Vienna
After Napoleon's defeat in 1814, governments from all over Europe met in Vienna to discuss how Napoleon's empire would be divided. Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia were the 4 main powers at the meetings.
King of France from 1643 to 1715; known as the citizen king because he ruled with the consent of the people. He replaced Charles X. Later, he started acting like the old kings of the past, and he was replaced by Napoleon III.
Otto von Bismarck
German chancellor who made competing claims with Leopold II of Belgium for African territory
the control of one country over another through economic policies rather than military force
archduke Francis Ferdinand
Archduke of Austria; his and his wife's assassination by a Balkan revolutionary led to the start of WWI
one of the main alliances in Europe during WWI. It consisted of France, Russia, and Britain
one of the main alliances in Europe during WWI. It consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy
league of nations
an international organization that was formed after WWI. Its purpose was to encourage democracy and prevent future war
a social system that seeks to abolish all forms of social classes and create a society of complete equality
a Russian ruler that had all the power of a king and ruled with the support of wealthy nobles and landowners.
one of the two groups that made up the Social Democratic Labor Party; sought change through democratic means
one of the two groups that made up the Social Democratic Labor Party; sough to overthrow the government through a revolution and to replace the government with dictatorial rule by the party; communists
a nationalistic and anti communist political movement that openly supports violence and dictatorship to achieve its aims
The National Socialist German Workers' Party that was led by Adolf Hitler; called for German speaking peoples to unite in a crusade against communists and Jews
an extremely destructive bomb whose power results from the chain reaction of nuclear fusion
a document that France and Great Britain signed; it showed that they recognized Hitler's takeover of the Sudeten area
Battle of Britain
Under the leadership of Winston Churchill, British pilots held off the Nazi air force in this series of fights
the name for the period between 1945 and 1989 when the united states and the soviet union competed for influence bud did not fight in a military war