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105 terms

History Key Terms

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circumnavigation
going completely around the Earth, especially by water
isthmus
a narrow strip of land connecting two larger areas of land
Prince Henry the Navigator
A prince who helped advance Portuguese navigation and trade significantly. He took part in the conquest of Ceuta, a Muslim trading city in North Africa. He also built a school for navigators. He brought together the best map makers, scientists, and ship designers. He paid for explorations along Afica's coast.
Bartolomeu Dias
a Portuguese exploreer; first to sail around the southern tip of Africa to the Cape of Good Hope in 1488
Vasco da Gama
a Portuguese navigator who was the first European to sail to India in 1497; his voyage opened the way for the expansion of the Portuguese empire; He brought back spices, such as cloves, and jewels back from his voyage. He earned 60 times the amount he spent
Christopher Columbus
An Italian navigator who discovered the Americas in 1492 while looking for a sea route from Europe to Asia
Vasco Nunez de Balboa
a Spanish explorer who discovered the Isthmus of Panama in 1511; also led an expedition that reached Pacific Ocean
Ferdinand Magellan
a Portuguese explorer whose crew was the first to sail around the world from 1520-1522; he was killed during the voyage by natives of the Philippines
monopoly
the exclusive control of goods or services in a market; the areas in which only one government or company has the right to trade
colony
a territory ruled over by a distant state
Pedro Alvarez Cabral
a Portuguese explorer; claimed Brazil for Portugal in 1500; later sailed to India
Dutch East India Company
a Dutch company that had a trade monopoly in Asia
Missionary
a person who is sent to do religious or charitable work in a foreign country; the people who traveled to other places to convert others to their religions
Persecution
the causing of injury or distress to others because of their religion, race, or political beliefs
Sir George Macartney
a British citizen that the British government sent to ask for British trading rights in China. He presented Qianlong, the Chinese emperor, with samples of fine British manufactured goods. This attempt failed.
Macao
A trading post that the portuguese established in China
Conquistador
a Spanish conqueror of the sixteenth century
siege
the surrounding and blockading of a town by an army intent on capturing it
civil war
a war between different regions of one country
Hernan Cortes
a Spanish conquistador who conquered Tenochtitlan, the Aztec capital, in 1521.
Moctezuma
The ruler of the Aztec Empire in the 16th century
quetzacoatal
a pale skinned Aztec god. The Aztecs thought that Hernan Cortes was this god
Francisco Pizarro
A Spanish conquistador who conquered the Incan empire when they were weakened by a civil war
viceroy
a governor of a country or colony who rules as the representative of a king or queen
plantation
a large estate or farm
encomienda
a grant of Native American laborers to a Spanish colonist by the king
Columbian exchange
the movement of plants and animals between the Western and Eastern hemispheres after the voyages of Columbus
emigrate
to leave one country or region to settle in another
ally
a country or group that is united with another for a common purpose
Samuel de Champlain
a French explorer who established the first French settlement in Quebec
enslaved
made into a slave and treated as property
import
to bring in goods from a foreign country
scientific method
a way of performing experiments
natural laws
the patterns that control the behavior of the universe
enlightenment
the belief that science and natural laws bring individuals and society to a more enlightened state
natural rights
the rights to life, liberty, and property
galileo
an Italian physicist who played a major role in scientific revolution. He improved the telescope, and he proved that the sun was the center of the universe and the planets revolved around it.
sir isaac newton
a British scientist who studied the motion of the planets and objects on the earth. His theories about natural laws included the laws of motion and gravity.
divine right of kings
the theory that the right to rule had been decided by God, and rulers had to answer only to him. People had no say and no freedom of speech.
constitution
a set of rules explaining the structure and powers of the government
democracy
a political system in which people freely elect government leaders
king louis xvi
a French king who was overthrown in the French Revolution. His wife was Marie Antoinette
Three estates
in France, the three social groups were called this. They were the nobility, the clergy, and the common people
Bastille
an important prison in France that also had a large storehouse of weapons. During the French revolution, the mob took over this place
Declaration of the rights of man
a document written by the national assembly during the French revolution. It was based on the U.S. declaration of independence. It guaranteed basic rights for all French citizens
Robespierre
a brilliant orator who became a leader of the French Revolution
Jacobins
the most radical political group of the National Assembly; they were led by Maximilien Robespierre. They declared a policy of terror against all opponents, including supporters of the king and nearly anyone else who disagreed with their policies
textile
woven or knitted cloth used to make clothing, blankets, and other good
factory
a large building in which many people work at the same time
industrial revolution
the development of new machines and the creation of factories
interchangeable parts
parts that are identical in size, shape, and quality and that allow products to be assembled quickly and efficiently
james watt
a scottish inventor who adapted the steam engine for uses other than pumping water from mines
nationalism
a feeling of strong loyalty or attachment to a culture, language, and/or territory
dictator
a ruler who has complete power
imperialism
the policy of forming and maintaining an empire, usually by taking over foreign colonies
congress of Vienna
After Napoleon's defeat in 1814, governments from all over Europe met in Vienna to discuss how Napoleon's empire would be divided. Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia were the 4 main powers at the meetings.
Louis-Philippe
King of France from 1643 to 1715; known as the citizen king because he ruled with the consent of the people. He replaced Charles X. Later, he started acting like the old kings of the past, and he was replaced by Napoleon III.
Partition
a division
campaigns
a series of military operations
Otto von Bismarck
German chancellor who made competing claims with Leopold II of Belgium for African territory
direct rule
the use of colonial officials to control a colony
indirect rule
the use of local rulers to control a colony
extraterritorial rights
the rights of foreigners to be protected by the laws of their own nation
indigenous
the original inhabitants of a region
economic imperialism
the control of one country over another through economic policies rather than military force
Matthew Perry
American naval commander who tried to establish increased trade with Japan
Jose de San Martin
South American revolutionary who helped liberate Chile, Argentina, and Peru
alliance
a close association between nations to achieve a common objective, usually by treaty
neutral
not taking any side
reparations
payments for harm done to other countries
archduke Francis Ferdinand
Archduke of Austria; his and his wife's assassination by a Balkan revolutionary led to the start of WWI
triple entente
one of the main alliances in Europe during WWI. It consisted of France, Russia, and Britain
triple alliance
one of the main alliances in Europe during WWI. It consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy
league of nations
an international organization that was formed after WWI. Its purpose was to encourage democracy and prevent future war
revolution
a change or overthrow of a government or social system
socialism
a social system that seeks to abolish all forms of social classes and create a society of complete equality
capitalist
a person who provides ideas and money for investing in business; a wealthy person
soviet
an elected workers' council or committee set up by Russian laborers
czar
a Russian ruler that had all the power of a king and ruled with the support of wealthy nobles and landowners.
Vladimir Lenin
Russian leader of the Bolshevik party that overthrew Czar Nicholas II
Menshevik
one of the two groups that made up the Social Democratic Labor Party; sought change through democratic means
Bolshevik
one of the two groups that made up the Social Democratic Labor Party; sough to overthrow the government through a revolution and to replace the government with dictatorial rule by the party; communists
Czar Nicholas II
Russian Czar who was overthrown in the Russian revolution
Duma
Russia's first elected legislative body that had very little power
Cheka
the secret police of the Russians that kept track of opponents of the new government
Inflation
an increase in both prices and the amount of money in circulation
depression
a sharp and prolonged downturn in the economy
fascism
a nationalistic and anti communist political movement that openly supports violence and dictatorship to achieve its aims
scapegoat
a person or group that bears the blame for the mistakes of others.
benito mussolini
Italian dictator who founded the fascist movement
adolf hitler
German dictator who led Nazi Germany during WWII
Nazi
The National Socialist German Workers' Party that was led by Adolf Hitler; called for German speaking peoples to unite in a crusade against communists and Jews
Holocaust
the term used to refer to the Nazis' murder of 6 million Jews during WWII
appeasement
the giving in to the demands of an aggressor in order to keep the peace
atomic bomb
an extremely destructive bomb whose power results from the chain reaction of nuclear fusion
Munich Pact
a document that France and Great Britain signed; it showed that they recognized Hitler's takeover of the Sudeten area
Battle of Britain
Under the leadership of Winston Churchill, British pilots held off the Nazi air force in this series of fights
stalingrad
the first major defeat for Germany was located in this Russian city
cold war
the name for the period between 1945 and 1989 when the united states and the soviet union competed for influence bud did not fight in a military war
arms race
during the cold war, the buildup of military forces by the US and the Soviet Union
glasnost
openness
perestroika
the restructuring of the Soviet government and economy
ho chi minh
the leader of communist north Vietnam
Vietcong
communist north Vietnamese forces fighting southern Vietnam
mikhail gorbachev
soviet leader; led reforms in the USSR, including glasnost and perestroika