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going completely around the Earth, especially by water


a narrow strip of land connecting two larger areas of land

Prince Henry the Navigator

A prince who helped advance Portuguese navigation and trade significantly. He took part in the conquest of Ceuta, a Muslim trading city in North Africa. He also built a school for navigators. He brought together the best map makers, scientists, and ship designers. He paid for explorations along Afica's coast.

Bartolomeu Dias

a Portuguese exploreer; first to sail around the southern tip of Africa to the Cape of Good Hope in 1488

Vasco da Gama

a Portuguese navigator who was the first European to sail to India in 1497; his voyage opened the way for the expansion of the Portuguese empire; He brought back spices, such as cloves, and jewels back from his voyage. He earned 60 times the amount he spent

Christopher Columbus

An Italian navigator who discovered the Americas in 1492 while looking for a sea route from Europe to Asia

Vasco Nunez de Balboa

a Spanish explorer who discovered the Isthmus of Panama in 1511; also led an expedition that reached Pacific Ocean

Ferdinand Magellan

a Portuguese explorer whose crew was the first to sail around the world from 1520-1522; he was killed during the voyage by natives of the Philippines


the exclusive control of goods or services in a market; the areas in which only one government or company has the right to trade


a territory ruled over by a distant state

Pedro Alvarez Cabral

a Portuguese explorer; claimed Brazil for Portugal in 1500; later sailed to India

Dutch East India Company

a Dutch company that had a trade monopoly in Asia


a person who is sent to do religious or charitable work in a foreign country; the people who traveled to other places to convert others to their religions


the causing of injury or distress to others because of their religion, race, or political beliefs

Sir George Macartney

a British citizen that the British government sent to ask for British trading rights in China. He presented Qianlong, the Chinese emperor, with samples of fine British manufactured goods. This attempt failed.


A trading post that the portuguese established in China


a Spanish conqueror of the sixteenth century


the surrounding and blockading of a town by an army intent on capturing it

civil war

a war between different regions of one country

Hernan Cortes

a Spanish conquistador who conquered Tenochtitlan, the Aztec capital, in 1521.


The ruler of the Aztec Empire in the 16th century


a pale skinned Aztec god. The Aztecs thought that Hernan Cortes was this god

Francisco Pizarro

A Spanish conquistador who conquered the Incan empire when they were weakened by a civil war


a governor of a country or colony who rules as the representative of a king or queen


a large estate or farm


a grant of Native American laborers to a Spanish colonist by the king

Columbian exchange

the movement of plants and animals between the Western and Eastern hemispheres after the voyages of Columbus


to leave one country or region to settle in another


a country or group that is united with another for a common purpose

Samuel de Champlain

a French explorer who established the first French settlement in Quebec


made into a slave and treated as property


to bring in goods from a foreign country

scientific method

a way of performing experiments

natural laws

the patterns that control the behavior of the universe


the belief that science and natural laws bring individuals and society to a more enlightened state

natural rights

the rights to life, liberty, and property


an Italian physicist who played a major role in scientific revolution. He improved the telescope, and he proved that the sun was the center of the universe and the planets revolved around it.

sir isaac newton

a British scientist who studied the motion of the planets and objects on the earth. His theories about natural laws included the laws of motion and gravity.

divine right of kings

the theory that the right to rule had been decided by God, and rulers had to answer only to him. People had no say and no freedom of speech.


a set of rules explaining the structure and powers of the government


a political system in which people freely elect government leaders

king louis xvi

a French king who was overthrown in the French Revolution. His wife was Marie Antoinette

Three estates

in France, the three social groups were called this. They were the nobility, the clergy, and the common people


an important prison in France that also had a large storehouse of weapons. During the French revolution, the mob took over this place

Declaration of the rights of man

a document written by the national assembly during the French revolution. It was based on the U.S. declaration of independence. It guaranteed basic rights for all French citizens


a brilliant orator who became a leader of the French Revolution


the most radical political group of the National Assembly; they were led by Maximilien Robespierre. They declared a policy of terror against all opponents, including supporters of the king and nearly anyone else who disagreed with their policies


woven or knitted cloth used to make clothing, blankets, and other good


a large building in which many people work at the same time

industrial revolution

the development of new machines and the creation of factories

interchangeable parts

parts that are identical in size, shape, and quality and that allow products to be assembled quickly and efficiently

james watt

a scottish inventor who adapted the steam engine for uses other than pumping water from mines


a feeling of strong loyalty or attachment to a culture, language, and/or territory


a ruler who has complete power


the policy of forming and maintaining an empire, usually by taking over foreign colonies

congress of Vienna

After Napoleon's defeat in 1814, governments from all over Europe met in Vienna to discuss how Napoleon's empire would be divided. Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia were the 4 main powers at the meetings.


King of France from 1643 to 1715; known as the citizen king because he ruled with the consent of the people. He replaced Charles X. Later, he started acting like the old kings of the past, and he was replaced by Napoleon III.


a division


a series of military operations

Otto von Bismarck

German chancellor who made competing claims with Leopold II of Belgium for African territory

direct rule

the use of colonial officials to control a colony

indirect rule

the use of local rulers to control a colony

extraterritorial rights

the rights of foreigners to be protected by the laws of their own nation


the original inhabitants of a region

economic imperialism

the control of one country over another through economic policies rather than military force

Matthew Perry

American naval commander who tried to establish increased trade with Japan

Jose de San Martin

South American revolutionary who helped liberate Chile, Argentina, and Peru


a close association between nations to achieve a common objective, usually by treaty


not taking any side


payments for harm done to other countries

archduke Francis Ferdinand

Archduke of Austria; his and his wife's assassination by a Balkan revolutionary led to the start of WWI

triple entente

one of the main alliances in Europe during WWI. It consisted of France, Russia, and Britain

triple alliance

one of the main alliances in Europe during WWI. It consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy

league of nations

an international organization that was formed after WWI. Its purpose was to encourage democracy and prevent future war


a change or overthrow of a government or social system


a social system that seeks to abolish all forms of social classes and create a society of complete equality


a person who provides ideas and money for investing in business; a wealthy person


an elected workers' council or committee set up by Russian laborers


a Russian ruler that had all the power of a king and ruled with the support of wealthy nobles and landowners.

Vladimir Lenin

Russian leader of the Bolshevik party that overthrew Czar Nicholas II


one of the two groups that made up the Social Democratic Labor Party; sought change through democratic means


one of the two groups that made up the Social Democratic Labor Party; sough to overthrow the government through a revolution and to replace the government with dictatorial rule by the party; communists

Czar Nicholas II

Russian Czar who was overthrown in the Russian revolution


Russia's first elected legislative body that had very little power


the secret police of the Russians that kept track of opponents of the new government


an increase in both prices and the amount of money in circulation


a sharp and prolonged downturn in the economy


a nationalistic and anti communist political movement that openly supports violence and dictatorship to achieve its aims


a person or group that bears the blame for the mistakes of others.

benito mussolini

Italian dictator who founded the fascist movement

adolf hitler

German dictator who led Nazi Germany during WWII


The National Socialist German Workers' Party that was led by Adolf Hitler; called for German speaking peoples to unite in a crusade against communists and Jews


the term used to refer to the Nazis' murder of 6 million Jews during WWII


the giving in to the demands of an aggressor in order to keep the peace

atomic bomb

an extremely destructive bomb whose power results from the chain reaction of nuclear fusion

Munich Pact

a document that France and Great Britain signed; it showed that they recognized Hitler's takeover of the Sudeten area

Battle of Britain

Under the leadership of Winston Churchill, British pilots held off the Nazi air force in this series of fights


the first major defeat for Germany was located in this Russian city

cold war

the name for the period between 1945 and 1989 when the united states and the soviet union competed for influence bud did not fight in a military war

arms race

during the cold war, the buildup of military forces by the US and the Soviet Union




the restructuring of the Soviet government and economy

ho chi minh

the leader of communist north Vietnam


communist north Vietnamese forces fighting southern Vietnam

mikhail gorbachev

soviet leader; led reforms in the USSR, including glasnost and perestroika

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