202 terms

CLEP Biology

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What is the key limiting factor on cell size?
The size of a cell is limited by the ratio of its surface area to volume.
A cell will only remain stable if...
...the surface area of the plasma membrane maintains a balance with the volume of the cytoplasm.
The salivary gland...
...secretes saliva which enters the digestive tract and aids the digestive process.
Gregor Medel
Studied the relationships between traits expressed in parents and offspring and the genes that caused the traits to be expressed.
In order to become an established part of an island ecosystem there must be...
...a populations large enough to ensure successful reproduction, a food source, a suitable habitat, and a source of moisture.
Lymphocytes
Are cells involved in immunity and are produced in bone marrow as stem cells.
B Cells
Produce antibodies into the bloodstream that find and attach themselves to foreign antigens (toxins, bacteria).
T Cells
Some patrol the blood for antigens, but are also equipped to destroy antigens. They may regulate immune responses as well.
Mass extinctions promote diversification...
...because ecological niches open up, making conditions favorable for the establishment of new, diverse species.
Common elements found in proteins are
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen
What phylum are snakes in?
Chordata
Cellular Respiration
Is the process that releases energy for use by the cell.
A hydrogen bond
Is weaker than ionic, covalent, disulfide, or double bonds.
A hydrogen bond involves
the attraction of atoms of different polarity and can be easily broken.
Ionic bonds involve
the transfer of electrons.
Covalent bonds
share electrons.
Chimpanzees
Are more closely related to Homo Sapiens than to other apes, but Homo Sapiens did not evolve from chimpanzees.
About five million years ago...
...the lineage that led to the modern Homo Sapiens diverged from the lineage that led to the modern chimpanzee.
The evolution leading to Homo Sapiens...
Is more like branching out of a tree with dead ends and new branches appearing simultaneously than like steps on a ladder.
Early hominids...
Stood upright before there was an increase in brain size.
The large brain and upright posture
of Homo Sapiens did not evolve together.
Most fossils of Hominids
are from continents other than North America.
The stomach secretes
digestive enzymes, hydrochloric acid, and gastric juices which aid in digestion. The mucous secreted by the stomach protects the stomach lining from the acids and juices.
Algae and Protozoa belong to the kingdom
Protista
Plants and animals obtain usable nitrogen
through nitrogen fixing bacteria and lighting.
When the water concentration inside and outside the cell is equal,
it is said to be in an isotonic state.
Isotonic Conditions
are produced when water passes through the cell membrane by osmosis from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration, to equalize water concentration.
The effect of a substrate concentration on the initial reaction rate in the presence of a limited amount of enzyme...
will increase the reaction rate as the concentration of substrate is increased until all the enzymes are used, then the reaction rate will level off.
An enzyme
Is a special protein that acts as a catalyst for organic reactions.
A catalyst
is a substance that changes the speed of a reaction without being affected itself.
Kingdom Protista
Contain one celled eukaryotes such as algae and protozoa.
Kingdom Animalia
contain organisms that are multicellular eukaryotes including vertebrates and invertebrates.
Kingdom Fungi
contains organisms that are multicellular eukaryotes including molds and mushrooms.
Kingdom Plantae
contains multicellular photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms including gymnosperms and angiosperms.
Cellular Metabolism
Energy transformations that occur as chemicals are broken down or synthesized within the cell.
Catabolism
breaking down
Anabolism
synthesis
Hydrolysis
a reaction that adds water to another compound. (2 hydrogens, 1 oxygen).
Chlorophyll
must be present for photosynthesis to occur, it is not used up in the process.
Chlorophyll has the ability to
absorb a photon of light and is found in the grana of the chloroplast.
Electron Transfer System (ETS)
produces the most ATP molecules, yielding 34 ATPs per glucose molecule.
The products of the Krebs cycle
are easily converted to ATP, but the main energy products of the Krebs cycle liberate electrons then used in the electron transfer reactions.
Photolysis is a reaction of photosynthesis where
chlorophyll pigments absorb photons of light, leaving the chlorophyll in a higher energy (excited) state, these then supply energy to reactions that produce ATP from ADP and Pi.
Pi
Inorganic phosphate
A mutation
is an accidental change of the DNA sequence of the gene that can result in creating a change of trait that is not found in the parent.
Differential reproduction
proposes that those individuals within a population that are most adapted to the environment are also the most likely individuals to produce viable offspring.
The Hardy-Weinberg Law of Equilibrium
states that where random mating is occurring within a population that is in equilibrium with its environment, the gene frequencies and genotype ratios will remain constant from generation to generation. It is a mathematical formula that shows why recessive genes do not disappear over time from a population.
Allopatric speciation
occurs when two populations are geographically isolated from each other. Over time this results in the production of two separate species.
Gene Migration occurs when
an individual from an adjacent population of the same species immigrates and breeds with a member of a previously locally isolated group, resulting in a change in the gene pool.
The primary role of DNA in the cell
is the control of protein synthesis. Genetic traits are expressed and specialization of cells occur as a result of the combination of proteins produced by the DNA of a cell.
DNA replication
allows for the genetic code to be preserved in future generations of cells.
Genetic imprinting
is when expression of genetic traits is determined by weather the trait is inherited from the mother or the father.
Genetic maintenance
the preservation of the integrity of genetic information from one generation to another.
Genetic screening
the systematic search for individuals with a specific genotype in a delineated population.
In DNA Guanine pairs with
Cytosine
In DNA Thymine pairs with
Adenine
Interphase
is the period when the cell is active in carrying on the function it was designed to perform within the organism. Cells spend much more time in interphase than in cell division.
Lysosomes
are membrane-bound organelles that contain digestive enzymes that digest dead or unused material within the cell or materials absorbed by the cell for use.
Free ribosomes
where protein synthesis occurs. They float unattached in the cytoplasm. They contain RNA that is specific to their function in protein formation.
DNA produces particular genetic traits through
Protein synthesis
Endocytic vesicles
are formed when the plasma membrane of a cell encloses a molecule outside the membrane, then releases a membrane bound sack containing the desired molecule into the cytoplasm. This process allows the cell to absorb molecules that are larger in size than would be able to pass through the cell membrane.
The nucleus
contains the chromosomes and is the site of reproduction through mitosis and meiosis.
Centrioles
are tubes constructed of a geometrical arrangement of microtubules in a pinwheel shape. Their function includes the formation of new microtubules, but is primarily to form the structural skeleton around which cells split during mitosis and meiosis.
Ribonucleic acid
is a molecule that stores information for protein synthesis and genetic coding.
Cellulose, starch, lipid, and sugar molecules
all store energy within their chemical bonds.
The cell membrane (plasma membrane)
engages in both passive and active transport.
Aggregate fruit
is a compound fruit that develops from many ovaries of a single flower fusing together (raspberry).
Multiple fruit
is a compound fruit that forms from several ovaries of separate flowers that fuse together during ripening (strawberry, or pineapple).
Simple fruits
fruits that develop from a single ripened ovary (apple, olive, acorn, cucumber).
Cuticle
Covers and protects the leaf.
Stem tissues include:
vascular tissue, including both xylem and phloem, and sieve plates existing between cells of the stem.
A prosthetic group
is an ion that binds to an enzyme making it more able to catalyze a reaction.
Prosthetic groups
may be ions or non-protein molecules, they are similar to cofactors, but differ in that they are tightly attached by covalent bonds to the enzyme, rather than being separate atoms or molecules.
An inhibitor
attaches to an enzyme and blocks the enzyme reaction rather than enhancing it, like a prosthetic group would.
Phloem tissue
is made of stacked cells connected by sieve plates that allow nutrients to pass from cell to cell. They transport food made in the leaves (by photosynthesis) to the rest of the plant).
Xylem tissue
transfers water and does not require sieve plates to allow nutrients through.
Meristem tissue
is found in the root cap and is responsible for quick growth in the roots.
Internodal tissue
is found on the stem between nodes.
Ectoderm tissue
is the outermost of the three main layers of an embryo.
Characteristics of water valuable to living organisms:
transparency, polarity, high specific heat, and density (lower density when solid than when liquid.).
Water has a pH of
approximately 7, making it neither basic (under 7) nor alkaline (over 7).
Carrying capacity
is the number of organisms that can be supported within a particular ecosystem.
Natality
refers to the birthrate of a population.
Population includes
the number of organisms in a given community, can be above or below the carrying capacity.
The community
is comprised of all the organisms that interact within a given ecosystem whether or not it is at carrying capacity.
The biosphere
includes all living and nonliving components of the Earth to support living things.
Spiracles
respiratory organs within insects
Most chemical pollutants accidentally ingested by humans
are filtered by the liver, mixed with broken down pigments in the bile, then bile is secreted into the small intestine, proceeds to the large intestine, and is expelled in the feces.
Gametogenesis
the process of forming eggs and sperm cells in the reproductive organs.
Gametocide
the destruction of gametes, (sex cells such as sperm and eggs).
Germ layers
The cells of a developing embryo (at the gastrula stage) differentiate into layers, that will later develop into different tissues and organs, including the mesoderm, ectoderm, and endoderm.
Mesoderm
Between the endoderm and ectoderm, layer that will eventually form the muscles, and organs of the skeletal, circulatory, respiratory, reproductive, and excretory systems.
Endoderm
Layer that will become the gut lining as well as some accessory structures.
Ectoderm
Layer that will become the skin, some endocrine glands, and the nervous system.
Morula
the solid mass of cells resulting from the cleavage of the ovum before the formation of a blastula.
Blastula
develops from the morula as a thin layer of cells surrounding an internal cavity.
Circadian rhythms
Internally generated patterns of body functions, including hormonal signals, sleep, blood pressure, and temperature regulation, which have approximately a 24-hour cycle and occur even in the absence of normal cues about whether it is day or night. An organisms daily repeated behavior such as wake and sleep cycles that function according to its internal clock.
Altruism
is a social behavior of an organism that is beneficial to the group at the individual's expense.
Fixed Action Pattern (FAP)
a type of innate behavior (instinct.) The FAP is a preprogrammed response to a particular stimulus (known as a releaser stimulus). FAP's include courtship behaviors and feeding of young. These are not learned behaviors, they are automatically performed without any prior experience.
Habituation
occurs when an individual learns not to respond to a particular stimulus, for instance when a stimulus is repeated many times without consequence.
Imprinting
is a behavior that is learned during a critical point (often very early) in an individual's life. Imprinting enables the young the recognize members of their own species.
Habitat
the physical place where a particular organism lives. It must include all the factors that will support its life and reproduction.
Niche
the role played by an organism in its food chain.
Biosphere
The part of the earth that contains all living things, including the atmosphere (air), the lithosphere (earth), and the hydrosphere (water).
A gene is
a length of DNA (with corresponding histones) is responsible for the production of a certain protein that causes a particular trait to be expressed in an organism.
Genome
the total amount of genetic information available for a given species.
Chromosome
contains many genes and is a structure comprised of linear DNA and associated proteins.
Nucleotides
are the monomers that form nucleic acids, containing a sugar, phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.
A species role in the food chain is part of its
niche
The habitat of an organism includes
biotic (living) factors such as population and food source, and abiotic (non-living) factors such as weather, temperature, soil features, sunlight).
Vascular bundles
are where the sugars synthesized by photosynthesis travel through to various parts of the plant.
Vascular bundles make up the
veins in the leaf and are also distributed throughout the stem
Epidermal tissue
is the outermost layer of cells of the stem.
Meristem tissue
consists of undifferentiated cells capable of quick growth and specialization. It is responsible for elongation of the stem.
Parenchyma tissue
has loosely packed cells that allow for gas and moisture exchange.
The cuticle
is the waxy protective outer coating of leaves.
Biogeochemical cycles
Process in which elements, chemical compounds, and other forms of matter are passed from one organism to another and from one part of the biosphere to another.
Recycled environmental factors
Carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, and water. These are all recycled through biogeochemical processes.
Silicon
is the major component of sand and is the most abundant element found in the lithosphere. It is not recycled.
As energy is transferred through trophic levels
some energy is lost as heat and becomes unusable.
Plasmodesmata
channels is cell membranes that carry water between cells.
Phosphorous
becomes available for erosion as undersea sedimentary rocks are up-thrust by volcanic activity, erosion releases it from rocks into streams where it combines with oxygen to form phosphates in lakes that are then absorbed by plants, it is recycled through the food chain as animals consume plants and other animals, it is returned to the ground by animal waste.
Phosphorous gas
is very rare and is not absorbed by plant leaves. Phosphorous is nearly always found in solid form.
The cell membrane
is composed of a double layer (bilayer) of phospholipids with protein globules imbedded within the layers. The construction of the membrane allows it to aid the function of the cell by permitting entrance and exit of molecules as needed by the cell.
Mitochondria
are the organelles where cellular respiration occurs.
A lysosome
is a packet of digestive enzymes that destroy cellular wastes.
Chromatin
is disorganized, unravelled, DNA with histones attached.
The nucleus
is the organelle where cellular reproductive processes occur.
Ecotone
the sharp boundary of an ecosystem.
The Cambrian Period
is the earliest period of the Paleozoic era. Began with the Cambrian explosion, this explosion of life resulted in the representatives of most of the modern phyla being present.
Phyla
subsets below the kingdom level
Precambrian period
Fossilized burrows from multicellular organisms begin to appear in the geological record approximately 700 million years ago during the Precambrian period. These multicellular animals had only soft parts and could not be fossilized.
Mesozoic era
Ended with the extinction of the dinosaurs.
Cenozoic era
the most recent and present era. It includes the radiation of flowering plants, the angiosperms.
Paleozoic era
There was extensive radiation of fish during the Devonian and Silurian periods within the Paleozoic Era.
The cell's "powerhouses"
Mitochondria, they constitute the center of cellular respiration.
Alveoli
are surrounded by capillaries that allow for carbon dioxide to diffuse into the lungs and oxygen to diffuse out.
Trachea
The trachea includes the windpipe or larynx in its upper portion, and the glottis, an opening that allows the gases to pass into the two branches known as the bronchi.
Bronchi
The bronchi lead to the two lungs where they branch out in all directions into smaller tubules known as bronchioles.
Larynx
The vocal cords are found in the larynx.
Pharynx
The pharynx is between the nasal passage and the trachea. Air passes into the body via the nasal passage, then passes through the pharynx and on to the trachea.
Arthropoda
The phylum of insects (bees).
Aves
the class composed of birds.
Annelida
the phyla composed of segmented worms.
Nematoda
the phyla of round worms.
Porifera
the phyla of sponges.
An enzyme
is a protein, which is a polymer of amino acids. They generally have the suffix -ase- like lactase.
Lactose
is the sugar that lactase acts upon.
Aganatha
super-class of vertebrae including organisms with no jaws.
Gnathostomata
super-class of vertebrae including organisms with jaws.
Protista
is a kingdom that includes algae and protozoa.
Cnidaria
is a phylum that contains jellyfish, hydra, etc.
Porifera
is a phylum that contains sponges.
The synthesis of ATP molecules to store energy is an example of
anabolism
Anabolsim
the process whereby cells build molecules and store energy (in the form of covalent chemical bonds).
Catabolism
Process of breaking down complex materials (foods) to form simpler substances and release energy.
Lysis
a suffix meaning "to break apart."
O
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C ---OH
This is a carboxyl group and is the signature group found within organic acids.
Cell walls
provide rigidity to plant cells (and some bacteria) and are not found within animal cells.
Bryophytes
nonvascular plants such as mosses which lack tissue for conducting food or water.
Angiosperms
plants that produce flowers as reproductive organs. They have two divisions, monocots and dicots.
Gymnosperms
produce seeds without flowers. They include conifers (cone-bearers) and cycads.
R-selection
an opportunistic life strategy strategy. Lichens invading a bare rock area after a volcanic eruption is an example.
Cerebrum
controls sensory and motor responses, and controls memory, speech, and intelligence factors.
Forebrain
controls olfactory lobes (smell)
Hypothalamus
controls hunger and thirst
Cerebellum
controls balance and muscle coordination
Midbrain
Contains optic lobes, controls sight.
The Cell Theory was
developed by the German scientists Schleiden and Schwann
The Cell Theory states
that all living things are made of cells, cells are the basic units of life, all cells come from pre-existing cells.
The Nitrogen cycle includes the following scenarios:
Bacteria break ammonia into nitrites, then into nitrates that are usable by plants; volcanic activity produces ammonia and nitrates that enter the soil and can be absorbed by plants; lightning reacts with atmospheric nitrogen to form nitrates that are absorbed by plants; nitrogen is recycled from dead organisms and reenters the food chain.
Enzymes catalyze reactions
in both living and non-living environments.
High temperatures
destroy most enzymes.
An enzyme is unaffected by the reactions it catalyzes,
so it can be used over and over again.
Enzymes are usually
very specific to certain reactions.
Some enzymes contain a
non-protein component that is essential to their functions.
Scurvy
is a disease caused by lack of vitamin C in which the body is unable to build enough collagen (a major component of connective tissue).
Vitamin C
is a coenzyme required in the synthesis of collagen.
Vitamins
are organic cofactors or coenzymes that are required by some enzymatic reactions.
Mature sporophyte
the individual we recognize as an adult fern.
Prothallus
small, green, heart-shaped gametophyte plant form of a fern that can make its own food and absorb water and nutrients from the soil
Tundra
has extreme cold temperatures, low precipitation, modified grassland, perma-frost, a short growing season and some plants and animals.
Desert
has extreme hot or cold temperatures, with very low precipitation, sandy or rocky terrain, sparse vegetation (mainly succulents), small animals, rodents, and reptiles.
Savanna
is a kind of plain characterized by a warm climate, grassland, and seasonally dry climate conditions.
Phototropism
an orienting response to light.
When stems bend toward the light it is due to
phototropism. the hormone auxin, in response to light, migrates from the light to the dark side of the shoot tip. The cells on the dark side now contain more auxin, which causes the cells on that side to elongate more rapidly than cells on the light side. The result is that the plant bends toward the light.
The theory of punctuated equilibrium
assumes that there are periods of stability during which little evolutionary change occurs, and that speciation can occur rapidly over a very short period of time.
Sudden appearance and disappearance of fossil species
can be accounted for by the theory of punctuated equilibrium. The fossil record shows periods of stability with regard to appearance and disappearance of species as well as periods of sudden change.
A sex linked recessive disease
has an equal (50%) chance of being passed from a carrier mother to a son or a daughter.
Hemophilia
sex-linked recessive disorder carried on the x chromosome defined by the absence of one or more proteins required for blood clotting
Color blindness
A sex-linked recessive disorder carried on the x chromosome in which an individual cannot perceive certain colors.
Saprophytic
(of some plants or fungi) feeding on dead or decaying organic matter
parasitic
decomposition of living matter for consumption.
pathogenic
disease causing
The pituitary gland
is composed of an anterior and posterior lobe. The stalk of the lobe is connected to the hypothalamus. Antidiuretic Hormone (AH) is produced in the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary. Upon nervous stimulation from the hypothalamus, the posterior pituitary releases ADH, which acts on kidney tubule to reabsorb water.
A sudden change in the amount of extracellular fluid will be corrected by events following the release of substances from this organ.
The pituitary gland.
The pancreas
secretes insulin to lower blood sugar and maintain equilibrium.
A person eats three candy bars. Within minutes this endocrine gland affects blood-glucose homeostasis.
The pancreas.
The adrenal glands
produce adrenaline. This hormone is a well-known constrictor of blood vessels.
The hormone aldosterone
is secreted by the adrenal cortex to promote sodium reabsorption in the kidney.
Restriction enzymes
cleave strands of DNA segments at certain sites.
Carbon
is an abundant element found in protoplasm. Together with oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen, it composes over 90% of cellular structure.