Biology Chapter 11 test

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Terms in this set (...)

karyotype
a micrograph of chromosomes
telomere
the caps on the end of the chromosome
nondisjunction of chromosomes
failure to disconnect
Down syndrome
47, XY+ 21
a child with this has an extra chromosome on chromosome 21
trisomy
3 chromosomes
ii
O blood
Ia Ia
A blood
Ib Ib
B blood
Ia Ib
AB blood
albinism
recessive genetic disorder; caused by altered genes; results lack in skin pigment
anchondroplasia
dominant genetic disorder; affects the nervous system
carrier
a person who is heterozygous for a recessive disorder
circle
female
square
male
colored in circle
female carrier
colored in square
male carrier
cystic fibrosis
recessive genetic disorder; affects mucus-producing glands, digestive enzymes, and sweat glands
glactosemia
recessive genetic disorder; characterized by body's inability to tolerate galactose
Tay-Sachs disease
recessive genetic disorder; gene found on chromosome 15; characterized by lack of enzyme that breaks down fatty acids
Huntington's disease
autosomal dominant genetic disorder; affects height, weight, and body size
heterozygous
an organism with two different alleles
homozygous
an organism with two of the same alleles
purebred
two of the same alleles
Hybrid
heterozygous for a specific trait
I
generation one
II
generation two
III
generation three
pedigree
shows the inheritance of a particular trait over several generations
incomplete dominance
when one allele is not completely dominant over the other (i.e. Tt)
codominance
when both alleles are expressed in the heterozygous condition (i.e. sickle cells)
multiple alleles
forms of inheritance determined by two or more alleles
epistasis
one allele hiding the effects of another allele (i.e. Labrador's coat color)
sex chromosome
one pair of the 23 sex chromosomes (i.e. Male (sperm)-X Female (egg)-Y)
autosomes
the other 22 sex chromosomes (i.e. Male (sperm)-X Female (egg)-Y)
sex-linked traits/X-linked traits
Traits controlled by genes located on the X chromosome
polygenic trait
the interaction of multiple pairs of genes (i.e. skin color, eye color, and fingerprints)
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